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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

GENTIANACEAE

GENTIAN FAMILY

James S. Pringle (except as specified)

Annual, perennial herb
Stem decumbent to erect, < 2 m
Leaves simple, cauline (sometimes also basal), opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0
Flower bisexual, radial, parts in 4's or 5's, except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, persistent or deciduous, corolla generally without fringes or scales on inner surface, sinuses between lobes generally unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding
Fruit: capsule, 2-valved
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 80 genera, 900 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma , Exacum , Gentiana )
Reference: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487]

GENTIANA

GENTIAN

Annual, perennial herb, generally glabrous
Stem generally simple below inflorescence
Leaves cauline, opposite (sometimes also basal)
Inflorescence: compact cyme or flowers solitary
Flower parts in 4's or 5's; calyx tube obvious; corolla tube narrowly bell-shaped, lobes spreading, < tube, scales 0, sinuses between lobes ± truncate, unappendaged or generally with a variously shaped, sometimes fringed appendage, nectary pits 0 (nectaries on ovary stalk); ovary stalked, style short or indistinct, stigma 2-branched
Species in genus: ± 300 species: temp to subarctic and alpine Am, Eurasia
Etymology: (Gentius, king of ancient Illyria, who might have found medicinal value in the plants)

Native

G. calycosa Griseb.

Perennial
Stems from caudex, ± decumbent, 2–many, 5–45 cm
Leaves: basal ± 0; cauline many, ± evenly spaced, generally > 1 X internodes, 8–50 mm, 6–30 mm wide, ovate to nearly round, obtuse to acute, generally obscurely, minutely dentate, not ciliate
Inflorescences generally terminal (sometimes also at 1–3 upper nodes); flowers 1–few per inflorescence
Flower: calyx 10–20 mm, lobes narrowly to widely ovate, generally > 2 mm wide, sometimes much reduced, obtuse to acute, generally obscurely, minutely dentate, not ciliate; corolla 25–50 mm, deep blue, rarely violet, lobes 5.5–13 mm, oblong-ovate to round, short-acuminate, sinus appendages divided < 1/2 way to base into generally 2 triangular parts, each thread-like only toward tip
Seed wingless
Chromosomes: 2n=26
Ecology: Wet mtn meadows, slopes
Elevation: 1300–3900 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, Montana
Hybridizes with G. newberryi var. tiogana in s SNH (Tulare Co.).
Horticultural information: IRR, DRN, acidic: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 &SHD: 14, 15; DFCLT.

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