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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

FILAGO

COTTONROSE, FILZKRAUT

James D. Morefield

Annual, grayish, cobwebby to tomentose
Stems generally ± evenly leafy below, ± leafless between upper forks
Leaves simple, alternate or seeming whorled, ± sessile, entire
Inflorescence: heads disciform, ± sessile, generally in groups of 2–10(20), ± ovoid to conic until mature; bracts leaf-like; phyllaries ± 0; receptacle generally < 2 X longer than wide, generally expanded at tip, chaffy; chaff scales generally 10–20, ± phyllary-like, each subtending a pistillate flower, generally evenly curved inward; outer scales each ± folded around a flower, generally falling with a fruit, ± woolly, back generally rounded, tip generally narrowly obtuse to acute, ± scarious-winged; innermost chaff scales generally > outer, open, boat-shaped, persistent, ± glabrous, ± rigid throughout, generally spreading at maturity
Pistillate flowers in (3)4–8 series, all or outer subtended by chaff scales; corollas tubular
Disk flowers bisexual, not subtended by chaff scales; corolla lobes 4–5
Fruit ± obovoid, generally ± compressed side-to-side; outer fruit enfolded by chaff scale, generally erect, straight, smooth, shiny, pappus 0; inner fruit not enfolded by chaff scale, slightly < outer, rougher or papillate, dull, pappus generally of 16–30 bristles, ± deciduous, generally cohering in a ring
Species in genus: 24 species: Eur, n Africa, sw Asia, sw North America
Etymology: (Latin: with threads, from woolly hairs)
Reference: [Wagenitz 1976 Sida 6:221–223]
Characters may be unreliable in dwarf plants. Subg. Oglifa sometimes treated as genus Logfia in Eur. 3 Eur. aliens occur near CA: F. arvensis, minima, vulgaris.

Native

F. californica Nutt.


Stems 1–several from base, ± erect, generally not forked, < 55 cm, grayish to green, cobwebby; central axis generally dominant
Leaves < 20 mm, generally oblanceolate, acute, flexible, grayish to green, cobwebby; uppermost generally < 1.5 X heads
Inflorescence: heads solitary or in loose, ± hemispheric groups of 2–4, not restricted to forks and tips of branches, longest 3.5–4.5 mm, 2.5–3 mm wide, grayish, largest groups 5–9 mm diam; chaff scales in spiral ranks, longest 2.7–3.3 mm, body generally ± hard
Pistillate flowers in 4–8 series; inner 9–30 flowers not subtended by chaff scales
Disk flowers 4–7; corollas 1.9–2.8 mm, lobes 4, generally bright reddish purple
Fruit: outer fruit erect, 0.9–1 mm, straight, compressed side-to-side; inner fruit generally sparsely papillate, pappus bristles 17–23, 1.9–3 mm, falling in a ring
Chromosomes: n=14
Ecology: Common, ± weedy. Bare, rocky, or grassy places, drainages
Elevation: 0–1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (most common s), East of Sierra Nevada, Desert (especially Desert Mountains)
Distribution outside California: to sw Utah, w Texas, nw Mexico
Flowering time: Mar–May
Dwarf plants like F. depressa except adherent pappus bristles, 4-lobed disk corollas.

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