|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(27); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1278]
Annual to subshrub
Leaves generally opposite below (or clustered in axils), generally ± fine-toothed; veins generally obscure
Inflorescence: generally raceme, bracted
Flower radial or ± bilateral; sepals 4, erect; petals 4, generally notched; stamens 8, anthers attached at middle, pollen grains generally shed in 4's, generally cream-yellow; ovary chambers 4, stigma generally club-like
Fruit straight, cylindric to club-like
Seeds generally in 1 row per chamber, generally with white, deciduous hair-tuft
Species in genus: 171 species: worldwide except tropical
Recent taxonomic note: Epilobium angustifolium, Epilobium latifolium now treated in Chamerion. See Hoch 1999 Flora of Japan IIc: 241; Baum et al. 1994 Syst Bot 19:363388.
Etymology: (Greek: upon pod, from inferior ovary)
Reference: [Raven 1976 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 63:326340]
Incl Boisduvalia , Zauschneria. Most taxa polyploid; many with anthers ± = stigma self-pollinated; many hybrids.
Perennial (clumped with basal scaly shoots) to subshrub 19 dm, ± densely spreading-hairy and generally glandular
Leaf subsessile, 550 mm, linear to ovate, green to grayish, sometimes strongly toothed
Flower red-orange; hypanthium 2034 mm; sepals 815 mm; petals 817 mm; stamens << pistil; stigma 4-lobed
Fruit 2035 mm, ± beaked, hairy; pedicels 02 mm
Seed 1.52.3 mm, low-papillate
Ecology: Dry slopes, ridges
Elevation: < 3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Wyoming, New Mexico, n Mexico
Hummingbird-pollinated. Sspp. intergrade, especially in s CA; subsp. garrettii (Nelson) P.H. Raven has been reported from DMtns.
Perennial 15 dm, generally glandular
Leaves opposite, widely lanceolate to ovate, generally green
Ecology: Habitats of sp.
Elevation: 5003000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, Transverse Ranges, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to sw Oregon, w New Mexico, nw Mexico
Flowering time: AugSep
Synonyms: Z. californica subsp. l. (Hook.) D.D. Keck
Horticultural information: SUN, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 17 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; rather INV; CVS; some forms GRCVR(deciduous); also STBL.