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Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.


Tina Ayers

Annual, glabrous
Stem decumbent to erect, (10)20–40 cm
Leaves cauline, often deciduous before flower, << flower bracts, 0.5–2(4) mm wide, lanceolate to awl-like (uppermost sometimes wider), sessile, generally entire
Inflorescence: spike; terminal flowers often aborted, overtopped by fertile
Flower sessile, generally inverted at full bloom by twisted ovary; corolla generally >> calyx, blue to pink or white, generally with a symmetric white or yellow spot on lower lip, tube entire, limb strongly 2-lipped, generally 2 lobes of upper lip < 3 of lower; stamens fused (filaments, anthers in tubes), generally 2 smaller anthers each with terminal tuft of bristles, 1 triangular or horn-like, generally 0.2–0.5 mm, others linear, shorter; ovary pedicel-like, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile
Fruit dehiscent by 3–5 lateral slits
Species in genus: 13 species: w North America, Chile
Etymology: (A.J. Downing, American horticulturist, 1815–1852)
Reference: [Weiler 1962 PhD Univ of CA Berkeley]
Fl part positions (upper = next to stem; lower = away from stem) given at full bloom.


D. concolor Greene

Flower: corolla 7–13 mm, glabrous except upper lobes ciliate-scabrous, lateral sinuses ± = or slightly > upper, lower lip blue with central white field including 1 purple, 4-sided spot at base, lower lobes obovate, obtuse, abruptly toothed; anthers included in corolla tube, < 45° to filaments; ovary 2-chambered, placentas axile
Seed longitudinally striate
Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, pond margins
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast Ranges, w Sacramento Valley, s San Francisco Bay Area, c Peninsular Ranges.


var. concolor

Fruit 30–50 mm, tardily dehiscent, without translucent lines
Chromosomes: n=8
Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, pond margins
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast Ranges, w Sacramento Valley (Lake to Solano cos.) San Francisco Bay Area (Monterey Co.)
Synonyms: D. tricolor Greene
Horticultural information: WET or IRR in winter and spring; SUN: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24.

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