Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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CAMPANULACEAE

BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.

DOWNINGIA

Tina Ayers

Annual, glabrous
Stem decumbent to erect, (10)20–40 cm
Leaves cauline, often deciduous before flower, << flower bracts, 0.5–2(4) mm wide, lanceolate to awl-like (uppermost sometimes wider), sessile, generally entire
Inflorescence: spike; terminal flowers often aborted, overtopped by fertile
Flower sessile, generally inverted at full bloom by twisted ovary; corolla generally >> calyx, blue to pink or white, generally with a symmetric white or yellow spot on lower lip, tube entire, limb strongly 2-lipped, generally 2 lobes of upper lip < 3 of lower; stamens fused (filaments, anthers in tubes), generally 2 smaller anthers each with terminal tuft of bristles, 1 triangular or horn-like, generally 0.2–0.5 mm, others linear, shorter; ovary pedicel-like, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile
Fruit dehiscent by 3–5 lateral slits
Species in genus: 13 species: w North America, Chile
Etymology: (A.J. Downing, American horticulturist, 1815–1852)
Reference: [Weiler 1962 PhD Univ of CA Berkeley]
Fl part positions (upper = next to stem; lower = away from stem) given at full bloom.

Native

D. concolor Greene


Flower: corolla 7–13 mm, glabrous except upper lobes ciliate-scabrous, lateral sinuses ± = or slightly > upper, lower lip blue with central white field including 1 purple, 4-sided spot at base, lower lobes obovate, obtuse, abruptly toothed; anthers included in corolla tube, < 45° to filaments; ovary 2-chambered, placentas axile
Seed longitudinally striate
Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, pond margins
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast Ranges, w Sacramento Valley, s San Francisco Bay Area, c Peninsular Ranges.

Native

var. concolor


Fruit 30–50 mm, tardily dehiscent, without translucent lines
Chromosomes: n=8
Ecology: Vernal pools, mud flats, pond margins
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: s North Coast Ranges, w Sacramento Valley (Lake to Solano cos.) San Francisco Bay Area (Monterey Co.)
Synonyms: D. tricolor Greene
Horticultural information: WET or IRR in winter and spring; SUN: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24.

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