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CAMPANULACEAE

BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy Morin, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0
Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers solitary in axils, generally open; bracts leaf-like or not
Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral, sometimes inverted (pedicel twisted 180°; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, generally fused (tube sometimes split down back), lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers and filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior, sometimes half inferior, chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched
Fruit: generally capsule, dehiscing on sides or at tip by pores or short valves
Seeds many
Genera in family: ± 70 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide. Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia ). Subfamilies sometimes treated as different families.

DOWNINGIA

Tina Ayers

Annual, glabrous
Stem decumbent to erect, (10)20–40 cm
Leaves cauline, often deciduous before flower, << flower bracts, 0.5–2(4) mm wide, lanceolate to awl-like (uppermost sometimes wider), sessile, generally entire
Inflorescence: spike; terminal flowers often aborted, overtopped by fertile
Flower sessile, generally inverted at full bloom by twisted ovary; corolla generally >> calyx, blue to pink or white, generally with a symmetric white or yellow spot on lower lip, tube entire, limb strongly 2-lipped, generally 2 lobes of upper lip < 3 of lower; stamens fused (filaments, anthers in tubes), generally 2 smaller anthers each with terminal tuft of bristles, 1 triangular or horn-like, generally 0.2–0.5 mm, others linear, shorter; ovary pedicel-like, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile
Fruit dehiscent by 3–5 lateral slits
Species in genus: 13 species: w North America, Chile
Etymology: (A.J. Downing, American horticulturist, 1815–1852)
Reference: [Weiler 1962 PhD Univ of CA Berkeley]
Fl part positions (upper = next to stem; lower = away from stem) given at full bloom.

Native

D. bicornuta A. Gray


Flower: corolla 7–19 mm, densely white-hairy in tube, lateral sinuses >> upper, lower lip blue-purple, with a central white field including yellow-green spots, base purple with 2 nipple-like projections, lower lobes obovate, obtuse, abruptly toothed; anthers < 45° to filaments, 2 larger bristles at tips of 2 smaller ones 0.6–2.7 mm, generally tightly twisted together, rarely 0 or not twisted; ovary 2-chambered, placentas axile
Fruit 35–65(90) mm, tardily dehiscent with no evident translucent lines
Seed longitudinally striate
Chromosomes: n=11
Ecology: Vernal pools, roadside ditches, lake margins
Elevation: < 1700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges (sporadic), Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to s Oregon, sw Idaho, w Nevada

Native

var. bicornuta


Flower: corolla 9–19 mm, tube (2.5)3–4(4.5) mm, 2 upper lobes erect or recurved, not crossed at tips, lower lip generally ± flat; 2 larger bristles of 2 smaller anthers 0.6–1.5 mm, < anthers
Ecology: Habitats, range of sp
Elevation:
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges (sporadic), Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau
Horticultural information: WET in winter and spring, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17.

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