|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0many, free; stamens generally 10many; pistils 1many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ),
some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:2427]
Perennial; root generally < 10 cm, ± fibrous or fleshy; buds generally obscure
Stem generally 1, erect, generally unbranched; base generally ± as wide as root, generally firmly attached to root, generally ± reddish or purplish
Leaves simple, basal and cauline, petioled; blades generally palmately lobed, deep lobes generally 35, generally < 6 mm wide, generally also lobed; lower leaves generally dry, often 0 in flower; cauline merging into bracts upward
Inflorescence: raceme or somewhat branched, terminal; flowers generally 1025; pedicels generally ± spreading
Flower bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, generally spreading, generally ± dark blue, uppermost spurred; petals 4, << sepals, upper 2 with nectar-secreting spurs enclosed in uppermost sepal, lower 2 clawed, with blades generally 48 mm, notched, generally ± perpendicular to claws, generally colored like sepals, generally obviously hairy; pistils 3(5)
Fruit aggregate of 3(5) erect follicles, generally 2.54 X longer than wide
Seed dark brown to black, often appearing white, generally winged when immature, generally without inflated collar; coat cell margins generally straight
Etymology: (Latin: dolphin, from bud shape)
Reference: [Lewis & Epling 1954 Brittonia 8:122]
Hybrids common, especially in disturbed places. Root length here includes coarse but not thread-like parts. Most species highly TOXIC, attractive and causing many deaths to cattle, less often to horses, sheep.
Horticultural information: Exc as noted, successful In cultivation only within natural range and habitat. Lowland subsp.: DRY. Upland species: winter chilling required.
Stem 1485 (generally < 50) cm; base hairy
Leaves mostly on lower third of stem; lobes 315, generally overlapping; petioles hairy
Inflorescence generally branched; flowers 425; pedicels ± ascending, 674 mm, 1025 mm apart, generally puberulent
Flower: lateral sepal 1025 mm, spur 1019 mm, straight or downcurved for < 3 mm at tip; lower petal blades 411 mm, hairier on inner lobes, margins
Fruit 919 mm; veins generally colored
Ecology: Grassland, open woodlands
Elevation: 0800 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Channel Islands.