|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0many, free; stamens generally 10many; pistils 1many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ),
some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:2427]
Perennial; root generally < 10 cm, ± fibrous or fleshy; buds generally obscure
Stem generally 1, erect, generally unbranched; base generally ± as wide as root, generally firmly attached to root, generally ± reddish or purplish
Leaves simple, basal and cauline, petioled; blades generally palmately lobed, deep lobes generally 35, generally < 6 mm wide, generally also lobed; lower leaves generally dry, often 0 in flower; cauline merging into bracts upward
Inflorescence: raceme or somewhat branched, terminal; flowers generally 1025; pedicels generally ± spreading
Flower bilateral; sepals 5, petal-like, generally spreading, generally ± dark blue, uppermost spurred; petals 4, << sepals, upper 2 with nectar-secreting spurs enclosed in uppermost sepal, lower 2 clawed, with blades generally 48 mm, notched, generally ± perpendicular to claws, generally colored like sepals, generally obviously hairy; pistils 3(5)
Fruit aggregate of 3(5) erect follicles, generally 2.54 X longer than wide
Seed dark brown to black, often appearing white, generally winged when immature, generally without inflated collar; coat cell margins generally straight
Etymology: (Latin: dolphin, from bud shape)
Reference: [Lewis & Epling 1954 Brittonia 8:122]
Hybrids common, especially in disturbed places. Root length here includes coarse but not thread-like parts. Most species highly TOXIC, attractive and causing many deaths to cattle, less often to horses, sheep.
Horticultural information: Exc as noted, successful In cultivation only within natural range and habitat. Lowland subsp.: DRY. Upland species: winter chilling required.
Stem 10120 (generally 4080) cm, hairy to ± glabrous below; base seldom reddish, generally prominently veined
Leaf: upper surface ± glabrous; lower surface puberulent, prominently veined; lobes 314
Inflorescence: flowers 5100; pedicels ascending, 675 mm, 350 mm apart, puberulent
Flower: sepals white to pinkish or dark blue-purple, lateral 716 mm, spur 818 mm; lower petal blades 38 mm, hairier on inner lobes
Fruit 818 mm, sometimes < 3 X longer than wide
Seed winged, otherwise smooth
Ecology: Grassland, open woodlands
Elevation: 101500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range Foothills, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Inner South Coast Ranges, c Peninsular Ranges.
Stem: base ± glabrous to hairy
Inflorescence: flowers generally < 30; pedicels generally > 8 mm apart
Flower: sepals spreading, dark blue-purple, lateral 816 mm, > 4 mm wide, spur 1018 mm; lower petal blades 58 mm
Ecology: Oak woodland, w slope coast ranges
Elevation: 101100 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, San Francisco Bay Area
Horticultural information: DRN, DRY; DFCLT.