|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 12 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 14, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ).
Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.
Annual, biennial, perennial herb
Stem simple or branched; branches generally ascending to erect, hairy
Leaves strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles (especially lower surface) bulbous-based; basal whorled; cauline generally opposite below, alternate above
Inflorescence generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit, open (flowers in fruit not overlapping or touching side to side) or dense (flowers in fruit overlapping or touching side to side)
Flower: sepals ± free; corolla generally white, tube generally 113 mm, appendages 5, white to yellow, limb 15 mm wide in annual, 612 mm wide in per; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed,
Fruit: nutlets 14, back generally grayish brown, smooth and shiny or granular, tubercled, or rough at 10X , margin rounded, sometimes sharp-edged, groove on inside surface narrow, open to closed, sometimes raised, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base
Species in genus: ± 160 species: w Am
Etymology: (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some species)
Reference: [Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13(4):163]
Annual species generally self-pollinating; per species homostylous or heterostylous. Many annual species difficult to separate; observation of nutlets and hairs requires magnification at 20X.
Annual < 10 cm, cushion-like; taproot generally red, purple when dry
Stem much-branched throughout, strigose and bristly or rough-hairy; hairs generally ascending
Leaf 0.31.5 cm, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, bristly to rough-hairy; hairs ± ascending
Inflorescence axillary or in branch forks; flowers 15 per cluster, dense in fruit
Flower: sepals 1.52 mm, 2.54 mm and circumscissile below middle in fruit, hairs ± like leaves; corolla limb 16 mm wide, appendages generally yellow
Fruit: nutlets 34, ± 1.52 mm, ovate, back generally smooth, shiny, generally mottled gray and brown, groove ± open below middle, forked at base
Ecology: Sandy soils
Elevation: 3003700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sierra Nevada, s San Joaquin Valley, Inner South Coast Ranges, e South Coast, Transverse Ranges, e Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Colorado; also in s S.America
Flowering time: JulAug
Synonyms: vars. hispida (J.F. Macbr.) I.M. Johnst., rosulata J.T. Howell
Plants from n SnGb, w SnBr, sw DMoj with corolla limb 3.56 mm wide, throat yellow, 2n=12, have been called C. similis K. Mathew & P.H. Raven. Corolla limb width intergrades in some places.