Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

COLLINSIA

Elizabeth Chase Neese

Annual, often glandular, sometimes brown-staining
Leaves opposite; lower petioled
Inflorescence bracted, often interrupted; flowers 1–many in leaf axils
Flower: calyx 5-lobed; corolla ± pea-like, generally glabrous outside, tube short, throat ± angled to tube, ± pouched on upper side, lips generally ± = throat, upper lobes 2, ± reflexed, generally paler, lower lobes 3, lateral spreading, central lobe keeled, enclosing stamens and style; stamens 4, attached unequally near throat base; staminode gland-like
Fruit septicidal and loculicidal (valves 2-lobed)
Seeds generally few, ± oblong, generally plump; inner surface ± hollow
Species in genus: ± 18 species: North America, especially CA
Etymology: (Zaccheus Collins, 1764–1831, Philadelphia botanist)
Late-season flowers generally atypically small.

Native

C. heterophylla Graham

CHINESE HOUSES

Plant 10–50 cm
Leaf lanceolate-deltate, toothed (often deeply lobed in seedlings)
Inflorescence interrupted, glabrous to hairy, ± glandular; whorls dense; pedicels < calyx
Flower: calyx lobes generally acute, glabrous to shaggy; corolla 10–20 mm, generally glabrous outside, throat hairy inside, strongly angled to tube, as wide as long, pouch prominent, squarish, upper lip white to lavender or tipped dark violet, wine-spotted and generally reddish lined near base, lower lip whitish to rose-purple, middle lobe generally with darker red tip; upper filaments hairy, spur 1–2 mm, curved into pouch
Seeds many, ovate, ± flat
Chromosomes: n=7
Ecology: Common. Shady places
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: n Baja California
Plants with very short upper lip have been called var. austromontana (Newsom) Munz. May hybridize with C. bartsiifolia, C. multiflora , and C. tinctoria ; more study needed
Horticultural information: DRN: 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24 &SHD: 7, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21 &IRR: 8, 9, 10, 11.

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