|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(27); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1278]
Stem prostrate to erect, < 1.5 m, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent; hairs rarely long and spreading
Leaf simple, pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 110 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent
Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds erect or not
Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4's or 2's, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 560 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider above, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or reddish; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider above, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent
Fruit: generally capsule, elongate, rarely short, indehiscent, nut-like
Seeds generally many, rarely 12, 0.52 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray or mottled
Species in genus: ± 41 species: w North America, 1 South America
Etymology: (Captain William Clark, 17701838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition)
Reference: [Lewis & Lewis 1955 UC Publ Bot 20:241392]
Self-compatible or -pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.
Stem decumbent to erect, < 1 m, puberulent
Leaf: petiole < 1 cm; blade 16 cm, linear to lanceolate
Inflorescence open or dense; axis in bud straight; buds erect
Flower: hypanthium 310 mm; sepals staying fused in 4's; corolla bowl-shaped, petals 1.56 cm, obovate to fan-shaped, pink to lavender, rarely white, red-spotted or -marked near middle; stamens 8, anthers alike; ovary cylindric with 4 grooves (or fusiform with 8), stigma beyond anthers
Ecology: Generally open, drying places
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Intermediates among subspp. frequent.
Inflorescence open; internode generally > subtending flower
Flower: petals 1.53 cm; ovary cylindric, grooves 4
Ecology: Openings in forest, woodland, generally not on coast
Elevation: < 700 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Horticultural information: SUN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 7, 8, 9, 14, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.