|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb (sometimes short-lived, dying after flowering once)
Stem generally erect
Leaves: lower generally tapered or petioled, often wavy-margined, generally pinnately lobed, ± dentate, lobes and teeth spine-tipped, margin generally spiny-ciliate, glabrous to tomentose; upper generally sessile, ± reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid, 1many; involucre cylindric to spheric; phyllaries many, graduated in several series, outer spine-tipped; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers generally many; corollas ± bilateral, white to red or purple, tube long, slender, lobes linear; anther bases sharply sagittate, tips oblong; style tip with slightly swollen node, appendage (above node) long, cylindric, branches very short
Fruit ovoid, glabrous; scar slightly angled; pappus bristles many, plumose, ± persistent or falling in ring
Species in genus: ± 200 species: North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: thistle)
Taxa difficult, incompletely differentiated, hybridize.
Biennial (or short-lived perennial herb) 725 dm, gray-tomentose with appressed felt-like hairs
Stem 1several, generally much-branched
Leaves tomentose (both surfaces) or becoming ± greenish above; basal 311 dm, petiole spiny-toothed, blade coarsely dentate to deeply 12 X lobed and dentate, main spines 310 mm; cauline smaller, expanded to ear-like, decurrent bases, shallowly to deeply lobed, spines often 712+ mm
Inflorescence: heads severalmany, clusters ± leafy, panicle-like; peduncles 14 cm; involucres 1.53 cm, 24.5 cm diam, ovoid to hemispheric; phyllaries often with dark purple patch near tip, tightly appressed, outer phyllaries ovate, inner lanceolate, outer and middle tipped by spreading spines 17 mm, inner with tips flat, acuminate, dark purple
Flowers: corollas 1821 mm, ± dark purple or white, tube 89 mm, throat 56 mm, ± = lobes
Fruit 56 mm, dark-brown to black, generally not flattened; pappus 1520 mm
Ecology: Wet places
Elevation: < 2200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, n South Coast Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: s Oregon
Closely related to C. mohavense & C. hydrophilum.