|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)45; stamens 45, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):128. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
Annual to perennial herb, ± branched
Leaves alternate; lower generally deeply 12-lobed, segments generally narrow; upper reduced
Inflorescence: heads discoid (sterile outer flowers sometimes ± ray-like); involucre cylindric to hemispheric; phyllaries many, graded, generally ± ovate, scarious-margined, tip appendages fringed to spiny; receptacle flat, long-bristly
Flowers: inner fruiting; anther bases tailed, tips oblong; style top minutely hairy, tips minutely branched
Fruit ± barrel-shaped, ± compressed, attached ± at side; pappus generally of stiff, unequal bristles or narrow scales
Species in genus: ± 500 species: especially Eurasia, n Africa (± 2 North America); some cultivated (waifs may including C. cineraria L., C. eriophora L., C. jacea L., C. moschata L., C. muricata L., C. salmantica L.)
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Annual 110 dm, ± rounded, gray-tomentose
Leaves ± scabrous-bristly; lower 515 cm, 12-lobed, generally 0 at flower; cauline long-decurrent
Inflorescence open; heads 1many; involucre 1317 mm, ovoid; main phyllaries pale green to straw-colored or brown, appendages palmately spiny, central spine 1025 mm, stout
Flowers many; corollas 1320 mm, ± equal, yellow, sterile corollas slender
Fruit 23 mm, glabrous; outer fruit dark brown (pappus 0); inner fruit ± mottled light brown (pappus bristles 24 mm, fine, white)
Ecology: Pastures, roadsides, disturbed grassland or woodland
Elevation: < 1300 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: native to s Europe
Flowering time: MayOct
Invasive, especially in pastures.
Cumulatively TOXIC to horses.