Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CASTILLEJA

INDIAN PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Highly variable within and between populations. Hybridization and polyploidy common; polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.

Native

C. linariifolia Benth.

Perennial 30–100 cm, few-branched, yellowish to gray-green, generally becoming purplish, glabrous to slightly puberulent
Leaf 20–80 mm, generally linear, rolled upward; lobes 0–3
Inflorescence 5–20 cm, open below; bracts 15–30 mm, lobes generally 3, narrow, < calyx, bright red to yellow
Flower: calyx 20–35 mm, divided 1/3 in back, 2/3 in front, ± 1/8 on sides, puberulent, lobes acute; corolla 25–45 mm, beak ± = tube, yellow-green, back puberulent, margins red, lower lip 2–3 mm, dark green; stigma slightly 2-lobed
Fruit 10–15 mm
Seed 1.5–2 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting, side walls ladder-like
Chromosomes: 2n=24,48
Ecology: Dry plains, rocky slopes, sagebrush scrub or pinyon/juniper woodland
Elevation: 1000–3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Montana, New Mexico
Flowering time: Jun–Sep

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bioregional map for CASTILLEJA%20linariifolia being generated
 


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