Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

CASTILLEJA

INDIAN PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

T.I. Chuang and Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green root-parasites
Leaves sessile, entire to dissected
Inflorescence spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, tips generally colored
Flower: calyx generally unequally 4-lobed, generally colored like bract tips; corolla upper lip beak-like, tip open, lower lip generally reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4; anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted
Fruit loculicidal, ± ovoid, ± asymmetric
Seed generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls sometimes aligned ladder-like
Species in genus: ± 200 species: especially w North America
Etymology: (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist)
Reference: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Highly variable within and between populations. Hybridization and polyploidy common; polyploid forms may have separate ranges or be ± identifiable within populations by minor characters. Biologically consistent taxa very difficult to define
Horticultural information: TRY with host; usually DFCLT.

Native

C. exserta (A. Heller) Chuang & Heckard

PURPLE OWL'S-CLOVER

Annual 10–45 cm, glandular-puberulent, stiff-hairy
Leaf 10–50 mm; lobes 5–9, ± thread-like
Inflorescence 2–20 cm, 2–4 cm wide; bracts 10–25 mm, white to purplish red, lobes 5–9 (lowest pair often again 2–4-lobed), ± linear (tips wider)
Flower: calyx 10–22 mm, divided 1/2 in front, 1/3 on sides, 2/3 in back; corolla 12–30 mm, beak 6–7 mm, shaggy-hairy, tip hooked, lower lip 4–6 mm, pouches 3–8 mm wide, 3–4 mm deep; filaments puberulent; stigma ± included
Fruit 10–15 mm
Seed 1–2 mm; coat deeply netted, loose-fitting
Ecology: Open fields, grassland
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, w Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: Arizona, nw Mexico
Synonyms: Orthocarpus purpurascens Benth
Highly variable; hybridizes with C. attenuata, C. densiflora, C. lineariloba. Very showy in spring.

Native

subsp. venusta (A. Heller) Chuang & Heckard


Inflorescence: upper bracts generally < 5 mm wide, lobes > 2 mm, tipped deep pink or purple
Flower: corolla pouch orange-tipped
Ecology: Dry sand, washes
Elevation: 600–900 m.
Bioregional distribution: w Mojave Desert
Synonyms: O. p. var. ornatus Jeps

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