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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



Raymond Cranfill, except as specified

Annual or perennial herb, often rhizomed, often of wet open places, generally monoecious; roots fibrous, hairy
Stem generally 3-sided
Leaves often 3-ranked; sheath generally closed; ligule generally 0; blade (0) various, parallel-veined
Inflorescence: spikelets variously clustered; flowers generally sessile in axil of flower bract
Flower small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or bristle-like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4-chambered; ovary superior, 1-chambered, 1-ovuled, style 2–3-branched
Fruit: achene, generally 3-sided
Genera in family: ± 110 genera, 3600 species: worldwide, especially temp
Reference: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445]
Difficult: taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence and fruit.



Joy Mastrogiuseppe

Perennial, cespitose or from rhizomes, generally monoecious
Stem generally sharply 3-angled, generally solid
Leaves 3-ranked, generally glabrous except generally scabrous on midrib, margin; sheath closed, back (blade side of stem) green, ribbed, front generally thin, translucent, forming generally U-shaped mouth at top
Inflorescence: spikelets generally several–many, arrayed in raceme, panicle, or head-like cluster, each 1–many-flowered, generally subtended by a spikelet bract
Flowers unisexual, each subtended by 1 flower bract; perianth 0
Staminate flower: stamens generally 3
Pistillate flower enclosed by perigynium (sac-like bract); perigynium body 2–3-sided or round, wall generally delicate; perigynium beak tip open, often notched; style 1, generally deciduous, stigmas 2–4, exserted
Fruit 2–4-sided
Etymology: (Latin: cutter, from sharp leaf and stem edges)
Reference: [Standley 1985 Syst Bot Monogr 7:1–106]
Fully mature perigynia needed for identification, so are described under "FR" (long-persistent perigynia are often atypical); perigynium "front" faces spikelet axis; "fruit" refers to achene body (excluding beak). "Shredding" lower leaf sheath fronts become a network or fringe of veins; some others shred longitudinally only. Difficult because of many species and minute key characters; longer key statements and descriptions are designed to enhance both ease and probability of correct identification. Group descriptions are assumed in specific descriptions
Horticultural information: Many species especially those with rhizomes are INVASIVE. This is one of the most effective genera for knitting moist or wet soil.


C. lenticularis Michx.

(Group 6) Cespitose
Leaf: blade 1–3.5 mm wide, folded below; sheath front ± yellow-dotted
Inflorescence: terminal spikelet rarely pistillate above; lateral spikelets 1.5–4.5 cm, 3–4 mm wide; lowest spikelet bract > or ± = inflorescence, leaf-like, sheath short; pistillate flower bract < or << perigynium, widely obtuse or acute
Fruit: perigynium 1.8–3.5 mm, 1–1.8 mm wide, body ± slightly, abruptly narrowed near base, stalk generally > 0.1 mm, generally veined, papillate, green, or white over fruit, purple-dotted or not, early deciduous, beak 0.1–0.5 mm, tip notched < 0.1 mm
Ecology: Wet places
Elevation: < 3000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Warner Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Rocky Mtns
Horticultural information: TRY.


var. limnophila (T. Holm) Cronquist

Inflorescence: lower spikelets >> internodes between, lowest spikelet 4–6 mm wide
Fruit: perigynium 2.5–3.5 mm, 1.3–1.6 mm wide, > pistillate flower bract, body green to gold, veins 5–7 both sides, stalk 0.4–0.7 mm, beak purple-tipped; fruit 1.1–1.5 mm, 0.8–1.6 mm wide
Ecology: Wet places
Elevation: ± 0 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast
Distribution outside California: to Alaska
Synonyms: C. hindsii C.B. Clarke

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