Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

ONAGRACEAE

EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner, except as specified Peter H. Raven, Family Coordinator

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous
Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary in axils; bracted
Flower generally bisexual, generally radial, opening at dawn or dusk; hypanthium sometimes prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals generally 4(2–7); petals generally 4 (or as many as sepals, rarely 0), often "fading" darker; stamens generally 4 or 8(2), anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen generally interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally 4 (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, or hemispheric
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like)
Seeds sometimes winged or hair-tufted
Genera in family: 15 genera, ± 650 species: worldwide, especially w North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Gaura, Oenothera )
Reference: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

CAMISSONIA

SUN CUP

Annual, perennial herb, from taproot or lateral roots
Leaves basal, cauline, or both, alternate, simple to 2-pinnate
Inflorescence bracted; spike, raceme, or flowers solitary in axils
Flower radial, generally opening at dawn (rarely at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed (sometimes 2–3 remaining adherent); petals 4, yellow, white, lavender, often with darker basal spots, generally fading purplish or reddish; stamens (4)8, longer ones opposite sepals, anthers generally attached at middle (or base), pollen grains 3-angled except in polyploid taxa (visible with hand lens); ovary chambers 4, stigma ± head-like or hemispheric, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated)
Fruit straight to coiled, generally sessile
Seeds in 1–2 rows per chamber
Species in genus: 62 species: w North America (especially CA-FP), 1 South America
Etymology: (L.A. von Chamisso, French-born German botanist, 1781–1838)
Reference: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]
Polyploidy and self-pollination have predominated in evolution of genus. Previously included in Oenothera (" O." in synonyms).

Native

C. tanacetifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven

Perennial; taproot woody, new shoots from lateral roots; hairs generally ± dense (sparse), short, spreading or appressed
Stem 0
Leaf 65–320 mm, narrowly elliptic, deeply and irregularly pinnately lobed; petiole 10–80 mm
Inflorescence erect
Flower: hypanthium 4–6.5(8.5) mm, closed by fleshy disk; sepals 5.5–13 mm; petals 8–23 mm, yellow; anthers attached at base; sterile tip of ovary 14–55 mm
Fruit 7–25 mm, long-tapered, swollen by seeds, leathery, ± straight or slightly curved, disintegrating irregularly
Seeds in 2 rows per chamber, 1.5–2 mm, pitted in rows, pale brown
Ecology: Open fields, moist slopes, clay soils
Elevation: 700–2500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, Nevada
Synonyms: O. t. Torr. & A. Gray
Cross-pollinated.

Native

subsp. tanacetifolia

Plant: hairs generally dense (sparse), spreading or appressed
Flower: < 5% of pollen grains 4-angled
Chromosomes: 2n=14,28
Ecology: Habitats of sp
Elevation:
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, Nevada
Flowering time: May–Jul
Synonyms: C. breviflora (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven misapplied: not in CA
Horticultural information: SUN: 15, 16, 17 &IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.

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