|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Perennial, generally from rhizomes
Stems 115 dm, generally not branched, ± smooth; nodes generally 24
Leaves generally basal and cauline; sheath smooth or scabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence panicle-like, open to dense; branches ± drooping to appressed; spikelets ascending to appressed
Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally lanceolate, acute to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged beyond floret, hairy; callus hairy; lemma < glumes, awned from below middle to near base, tip generally 4-toothed, veins 35, awn straight to twisted, bent; palea ± = lemma, thin
Species in genus: ± 100 species: cool temp (especially moist montane); some forage value
Etymology: (Greek: reed grass)
Reference: [Greene 1980 Ph.D. Thesis Harvard University]
Hybridization, polyploidy, and asexual seed set contribute to taxonomic difficulty.
Stem 610 dm; nodes 23
Leaf: sheath smooth, generally puberulent or hairy-tufted near collar; ligule 35 mm; blade 25 mm wide, flat, lower surface smooth or scabrous, upper surface scabrous, sometimes short-hairy
Inflorescence 615(25) cm, dense to ± open; branches < 24 cm
Spikelet: glumes 45 mm, smooth to scabrous especially on keel; axis ± 1 mm, hairs < 2 mm; callus hairs < 1 mm; lemma 34 mm, awned near base; awn 3.54.5 mm, exserted slightly beyond glume sides, strongly twisted, bent
Ecology: Wooded slopes, montane forests
Elevation: < 900 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Western California, n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island)
Distribution outside California: to sw Canada, Rocky Mtns
Horticultural information: IRR, DRN: 1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 &SUN: 4, 5, 6, 24.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|