Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

BROMUS

BROME

Dieter H. Wilken and Elizabeth L. Painter

Annual to perennial herb
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath closed, generally hairy; ligule generally < 5 mm, membranous, entire to fringed; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence generally panicle-like, open to dense; spikelet stalk generally stiff, rigid
Spikelet strongly compressed to cylindric; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; glumes unequal, generally < lower floret, lower generally 1–3-veined, upper 3–7-veined, back rounded to keeled, tip acute; lemmas faintly 5–9-veined, tip generally 2-toothed, short-pointed to straight-awned from between teeth; palea generally < lemma
Species in genus: ± 150 species: temp worldwide
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Stebbins 1947 Contr Gray Herb 165:42–55; Wagnon 1952 Brittonia 7:415–480]
Native species need careful study.

Introduced

B. catharticus J. Vahl

RESCUE GRASS

Annual or short-lived perennial herb, 30–100 cm
Leaf: sheath generally short-soft-hairy; blade 3–10 mm wide, glabrous to scabrous or short-soft-hairy
Inflorescence 10–30 cm, ± open, generally erect; lower branches spreading to nodding; upper branches ascending
Spikelet strongly compressed, glabrous to minutely scabrous; glumes keel-like, lower 7–12 mm, 5–7(9)-veined, upper 8–13 mm, 7–9-veined; florets 5–13; lemma body 9–12 mm, keel-like, 7–11-veined, keeled, tip acute, awn 0–2.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=42
Ecology: Open, generally disturbed places, fields
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to s Canada, e US, Europe; native to S.America
Flowering time: Apr–Nov
Synonyms: B. haenkeanus (C. Presl) Kunth, B. unioloides Kunth, B. willdenovii Kunth; Pinto-Escobar 1981 Bot Jahrb Syst 102:445–457

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