Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
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BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.

BORAGO

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb, bristly to rough-hairy
Stems erect
Leaves cauline, ± petioled; blade ovate to oblanceolate, entire
Inflorescence: cymes, terminal, 2–3-flowered; pedicels ± spreading to pendent
Flower: calyx deeply lobed; corolla rotate to bell-shaped, lobes widely spreading, throat appendages erect, glabrous; stamens strongly exserted, together conic in outline, filament base dilated, anthers adherent, enclosing style
Fruit: nutlets erect, stout, obovoid, irregulary tubercled, rim of scar thickened
Species in genus: 3 species: Eur
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name of unknown origin)

Introduced

B. officinalis L.

Annual, generally branching above
Stem ascending to erect, 2–7 dm
Leaves: lower blades 8–20 cm, 3–8 cm wide
Flower: calyx lobes 8–10 mm in flower, linear; corolla rotate, bright blue, lobes 8–12 mm; anthers 5–8 mm, dark brown
Fruit: nutlets 5–7 mm, ± oblong
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Open, often disturbed sites
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: widespread US; native to s Europe
Orn, cultivated for bees (nectar source), potherb.

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bioregional map for BORAGO%20officinalis being generated
 
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Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Borago officinalis
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