Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, generally bristly or sharply hairy
Stem prostrate to erect
Leaves cauline, often with basal rosette, generally simple, alternate; lower sometimes opposite, entire
Inflorescence: cyme, generally elongate, panicle-, raceme- or spike-like, coiled in flower, generally uncoiled in fruit or flowers 1–2 per axil
Flowers generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 5, free or fused in lower half; corolla 5-lobed, generally salverform, top of tube generally appendaged, appendages 5, alternating with stamens, sometimes arching over tube; stamens 5, epipetalous; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed, style generally entire
Fruit: nutlets 1–4, smooth to variously roughened, sometimes prickly or bristled
Genera in family: ± 100 genera, ± 2000 species: tropical, temp, especially w North America, Medit; some cultivated (Borago, Echium, Myosotis, Symphytum ). Almost all genera may be TOXIC from alkaloids or accumulated nitrates
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae [Olmsted et al. 2000 Mol Phylog Evol 16:96–112]
Family description, key to genera by Timothy C. Messick.

BORAGO

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb, bristly to rough-hairy
Stems erect
Leaves cauline, ± petioled; blade ovate to oblanceolate, entire
Inflorescence: cymes, terminal, 2–3-flowered; pedicels ± spreading to pendent
Flower: calyx deeply lobed; corolla rotate to bell-shaped, lobes widely spreading, throat appendages erect, glabrous; stamens strongly exserted, together conic in outline, filament base dilated, anthers adherent, enclosing style
Fruit: nutlets erect, stout, obovoid, irregulary tubercled, rim of scar thickened
Species in genus: 3 species: Eur
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name of unknown origin)

Introduced

B. officinalis L.

Annual, generally branching above
Stem ascending to erect, 2–7 dm
Leaves: lower blades 8–20 cm, 3–8 cm wide
Flower: calyx lobes 8–10 mm in flower, linear; corolla rotate, bright blue, lobes 8–12 mm; anthers 5–8 mm, dark brown
Fruit: nutlets 5–7 mm, ± oblong
Chromosomes: 2n=16
Ecology: Open, often disturbed sites
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: widespread US; native to s Europe
Orn, cultivated for bees (nectar source), potherb.

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