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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

BELLARDIA

Margriet Wetherwax

Annual, hairy
Stem erect, generally simple
Leaves opposite above, sessile, toothed
Inflorescence: raceme, spike-like, bracted
Flower: calyx 4-lobed; corolla 2-lipped, upper lip hood-like, lower lip > upper, 3-lobed, throat with 2 ridges; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, included, anthers hairy, awned at base; stigma club-shaped
Fruit ovoid, loculicidal
Seeds many, small, ridged
Species in genus: 2 species: Medit
Etymology: (C.A.L. Bellardi, Italian botany professor, Turin, 1740–1826)

Introduced

B. trixago (L.) All.

Plant glandular-hairy
Stem erect, 15–70 cm
Leaf 15–90 mm, linear to lanceolate, coarsely crenate-dentate
Inflorescence: bracts leaf-like, reduced upwards, becoming ovate, cordate, entire
Flower: calyx 8–10 mm, lobes 1–1.5 mm, unequal, triangular; corolla 20–25 mm, pale purple, lower lip white
Fruit ± 7mm
Seed 0.5–1 mm, ± oblong
Chromosomes: 2n=24
Ecology: Disturbed places
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean

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