|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Stems erect, 16, ± glabrous
Leaves basal and cauline; ligules 25 mm, membranous, rounded at tip; blade flat
Inflorescence panicle-like, open
Spikelets generally stalked, ± pendent; glumes subequal, generally > florets, membranous, 57-veined, generally glabrous; axis prolonged behind upper floret, vestigial floret at tip; florets 23, upper floret > lower, bisexual, breaking above glumes and between florets or not breaking; lemmas hard, glabrous to hairy below awn, awned at or slightly below middle, tip 2-forked, 57-veined, awn stiff, bent to straight, slightly to strongly coiled below bend; palea ± < lemma
Species in genus: ± 1015 species: temp Eur, Asia. Cult for grain, hay
Etymology: (Latin: oats)
Stem 312 dm
Leaf: blade 412 mm wide, minutely scabrous
Spikelet: glumes 1825 mm, 79-veined; lemmas 1420 mm, generally glabrous on back to soft-hairy in lower third, forks at tip < 1 mm, awn 2540 mm, bent, twisted below bend
Ecology: Disturbed sites
Elevation: 251220 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province, Modoc Plateau, Mojave Desert
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, eastern Canada, most of US; native to Europe
Flowering time: AprJun
A. occidentalis Durand, with 4 florets, has been reported from CA.
Hybridizes with A. sativa, A. sterilis.