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ASTERACEAE

SUNFLOWER FAMILY

David J. Keil, Family Editor and author, except as specified

Annual to tree
Leaves basal or cauline, alternate to whorled, simple to compound
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, each resembling a flower, 1–many, generally arrayed in cymes, generally subtended by ± calyx-like involucre; flowers 1–many per head
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4–5; stamens 4–5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style branches
Fruit: achene, cylindric to ovoid, generally deciduous with pappus attached
Genera in family: ± 1300 genera, 21,000 species (largest family of dicots): worldwide. Largest family in CA. Also see tribal key to CA genera: Strother 1997 Madroño 44(1):1–28. See glossary p. 25 for illustrations of general family characteristics.

ARTEMISIA

SAGEBRUSH

Leila M. Shultz

Annual to shrubs, generally aromatic
Leaves entire to ± lobed, glabrous to densely hairy; hairs glandular (resin-filled) or T-shaped, hollow
Inflorescence: generally panicle; heads generally discoid or disciform, in racemes or panicles; involucre ovoid to hemispheric, generally concealing flowers; phyllaries in several series, margins scarious; receptacle conic, generally naked
Pistillate flowers 0–many; corollas generally < 2 mm
Disk flowers 4–many, generally forming fruits, sometimes staminate; corollas < 2 mm, pale yellow; anther tips acute to awl-shaped; style branches flat, fringed or blunt (sometimes simple, tack-shaped in staminate flowers)
Fruit < 2 mm, obovoid or fusiform, ribbed or smooth, glabrous, hairy, or resinous; pappus generally 0 or minute crown
Species in genus: ± 300 species: especially n hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: Artemis, goddess of the hunt, and noted herbalist, Queen of Anatolia)
Reference: [Keck 1946 Proc Calif Acad Sci (4)25:421–468; Shultz 1983 PhD thesis Claremont Graduate School]

Native

A. dracunculus L.

TARRAGON

Perennial 5–15 dm, from rhizome and woody caudex, generally glabrous, odorless or tarragon-scented
Stems many, stiff, erect, brown
Leaves basal and cauline, 1–7 cm, linear, entire or with few linear lobes, bright green, glabrous (except D)
Inflorescence 15–45 cm, leafy; heads 2–3.5 mm diam, generally nodding; phyllaries widely ovate, glabrous, light brown, membranous, margins widely transparent
Pistillate flowers 14–25
Disk flowers 8–20, staminate
Fruit 0.5–0.8 mm, glabrous
Chromosomes: 2n=18
Ecology: Common. Meadows, disturbed sites
Elevation: < 3400 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (except North Coast, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range)
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, n Canada, north-central US, n Mexico, Eurasia
Flowering time: Aug–Oct
Horticultural information: DRN, SUN: 4, 5, 6; IRR: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24; CVS non-CA.

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