Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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RANUNCULACEAE

BUTTERCUP FAMILY

Dieter H. Wilken, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes aquatic
Leaves generally basal and cauline, generally alternate, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, sometimes sheathing or stipule-like
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; sepals generally 5, free, early deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, free; stamens generally 10–many; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 1, generally ± persistent in fruit as beak, ovules 1–many
Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, or utricle-like, 1–many-seeded
Genera in family: ± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially n temp, tropical mtns; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Erianthis, Helleborus ), some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus )
Reference: [Duncan & Keener 1991 Phytologia 70:24–27]

AQUILEGIA

COLUMBINE

Perennial from thick, simple to branched caudex
Stems 1–few, ascending to erect, branched to not, scapose to not, glabrous to glandular-hairy
Leaves: basal 1–3-ternate, petiole generally long; cauline 0–few, generally much reduced, deeply 3-lobed to 1–2-ternate, petiole short to ± 0; segments generally wedge-shaped to obovate, upper surface green to pale green, lower surface pale green to glaucous
Inflorescence: few-flowered raceme or flower solitary, terminal; axis and pedicels glabrous to glandular; flowers often pendent
Flower radial; sepals 5, petal-like, spreading to slightly reflexed; petals 5, generally with spur projecting between sepals; pistils generally 5
Fruit: follicles, glabrous to glandular
Seeds smooth, shiny, brown to black
Species in genus: ± 70 species: temp North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Derivation uncertain, perhaps Latin: eagle, from spurs, or water-drawer, from habitats)
Reference: [Munz 1946 Gentes Herb 7:1–150]
Many species and hybrids cultivated as ornamental; natural hybrids common.

Native

A. formosa DC.

Plant 20–80(150) cm
Leaves: basal and lower cauline 2–3-ternate, petioles 5–30(40) cm, segments 7–45(130) mm; upper cauline generally simple to deeply 3-lobed
Inflorescence: flower nodding, in fruit erect
Flower: sepals 12–20(25) mm, red; petal blade 1–8 mm, yellow, spur (4)10–23 mm, ± straight to ± incurved, tube red, tip 1.5–4 mm wide, mouth 4–8 mm wide, ± round, ± 90° to flower axis, red to yellowish; stamens 10–18 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Streambanks, seeps, moist places, chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-evergreen or coniferous forest
Elevation: < 3300 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley, South Coast, Channel Islands), Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Montana, Baja California
Flowering time: Jul
Synonyms: vars. hypolasia (Greene) Munz, pauciflora (Greene) H.S. Boothman, truncata (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Baker; forma anomala J.T. Howell
Lf variation needs study; plants with pale green to glaucous, generally 3-ternate leaves (DMtns), have been called A. shockleyi Eastw
Horticultural information: IRR, DRN: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17, 24 &SHD: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23.

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