This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Perennial (sometimes annual, shrub, vine, tree); sap milky
Leaves simple, entire, opposite, alternate, or subwhorled; stipules 0 or small
Inflorescence: cyme; flowers 1many, axillary or terminal
Flower bisexual, radial; perianth parts overlapping, at least in bud; sepals 5, fused at base, persistent; petals 5, fused in ± basal half; stamens 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes; ovaries 2, ± superior, generally free, styles and stigmas fused
Fruit: generally 2 follicles
Seeds many, often with tuft of silky hairs
Genera in family: ± 150200 genera, 10002000 species: especially tropical; many ornamental (Nerium, oleander; Plumeria , frangipani); some alkaloids highly toxic, some used in medicine
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Asclepiadaceae
Reference: [Rosatti 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:307401]
Stem ascending to erect
Inflorescence: flowers severalmany
Flower small; corolla cylindric to bell-shaped, 5-lobed, with 5 triangular appendages alternate stamens; stamens attached at base of tube, filaments short, wide, anthers forming adherent cone around stigma, each partly sterile, sharply sagittate; nectaries 5, free, around and < ovaries; style ± 0, stigma massive, ovoid, obscurely 2-lobed
Fruit slender, cylindric, pointed
Seed with tuft of long hairs
Species in genus: ± 7 species: North America
Etymology: (Greek: away from, dog, from ancient use as dog poison)
. The 2 CA species hybridize extensively; many hybrid forms have been named.
Stem stout, ± stiffly erect, branched near top
Leaf: petiole << blade; blade 58 cm, base tapered to cordate, sometimes clasping stem, tip obtuse to acute
Flower: corolla 2.55 mm, cylindric to urn-shaped
Fruit 69 cm, ± pendent
Ecology: Moist places near streams, springs, etc., or weed in orchards
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia, e N.America
Flowering time: JunAug
Synonyms: var. glaberrimum A. DC.; A. sibiricum Jacq. var. salignum (Greene) Fernald
Horticultural information: WET: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21; STBL, INV; important traditional source of fiber..
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|