Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

FIGWORT FAMILY

Lawrence R. Heckard, Family Coordinator

Annual to shrubs, generally glandular, some green root-parasites
Stem generally round
Leaves generally alternate, simple, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0
Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils
Flower bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed); stamens generally 4 in 2 pairs, generally included, a 5th (generally uppermost) sometimes present as a staminode; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal
Seed: coat sculpture often characteristic
Genera in family: ± 200 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (e.g., Antirrhinum, Mimulus, Penstemon ) or medicinal (Digitalis )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include only Buddleja, Scrophularia, and Verbascum in CA; other genera moved to Orobanchaceae (Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus), and Plantaginaceae (= Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al.)
Key to genera by Elizabeth Chase Neese & Margriet Wetherwax.

ANTIRRHINUM

SNAPDRAGON

David M. Thompson

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous to hairy
Stem vine-like, ascending or erect, often clinging by twining pedicels or branchlets
Leaves generally opposite below, alternate above, generally reduced upward; veins pinnate
Inflorescence: raceme or flowers solitary in axils
Flowers often cleistogamous; uppermost calyx lobe generally largest; corolla tube of opening flowers truncate or with rounded sac-like extension at base, lower lip base generally swollen and closing mouth; staminode 0
Fruit ovoid to spheric; chambers generally dehiscent by 1–2 pores near tip, lower chamber generally larger, upper sometimes indehiscent
Seeds many, generally with tubercles or netted ridges
Species in genus: 36 species: w North America, w Medit
Etymology: (Greek: nose-like, from corolla shape)
Reference: [Thompson 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 22:1–142]

Native

A. nuttallianum Benth.

Annual, rarely biennial, hairy
Stem erect but weak, often clinging to other plants or debris
Inflorescence: flowers solitary; pedicels generally 2–18 mm, lowest generally subtended by twining branchlets, flower branchlets, or both
Flower: calyx lobes ± equal; corolla of opening flowers 7–12 mm, lavender to blue-purple with 1–2 blue-veined white blotches on lower lip base and gold hairs in mouth (hair color unique in CA)
Chromosomes: n=16
Ecology: Dunes, rocky or disturbed places
Elevation: 0–1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Central Coast, South Coast, Channel Islands, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: Baja California
Sspp. hybridize near coast
Horticultural information: TRY.

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