Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

MALVACEAE

MALLOW FAMILY

Steven R. Hill, except as specified

Annual, perennial herb, shrubs, trees, generally stellate-hairy; juice sticky; inner bark tough, fibrous
Leaves alternate, simple, petioled; blade generally palmately veined or lobed, stipules present
Inflorescence often leafy; whorl or involucre of bractlets often subtending calyx
Flower generally bisexual, radial; calyx lobes 5, margins abutting in bud; petals 5, free (fused at base to filament tube, so falling together); stamens many, filaments fused into a tube surrounding style, tube fused in turn to petal bases; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 5 or more, style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 2 X as many as chambers
Fruit of 5–many disk- or wedge-shaped segments, loculicidal capsule, or berry
Genera in family: 100 genera, 2000 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus , okra; Alcea ; Gossypium , cotton; Hibiscus , Malvaviscus )
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Sterculiaceae [Angiosperm phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303]
Mature fruit important for identification.

ANODA

Annual, perennial herb
Stem ascending to erect, sparsely bristly to tomentose
Leaf: blade shape variable within a plant, especially upper generally hastate
Inflorescence: bractlets subtending calyx 0
Flower: stigmas head-like
Fruit hemispheric to disk-like; segments 5–20, side walls fragile
Seed 1 per fruit segment; inner seed coat net-veined, ± enveloping seed
Species in genus: 23 species: especially Mex, South America
Etymology: (Ceylonese name)
Reference: [Fryxell 1987 Aliso 11(4):485–522]

Introduced

A. cristata (L.) Schldl.

VIOLETTAS

Annual
Stem decumbent to erect, 5–10 dm, sparsely bristly
Leaf: blade 2–9 cm, lower often triangular to hastate; hairs generally unbranched
Inflorescence: flowers solitary in axils
Flower: calyx spreading in fruit, 20–25 mm diam, lobes acuminate, often reddish; petals 8–30 mm, purplish
Fruit: segments 9–20, dark green, bristly, beaked
Chromosomes: 2n=30,60,90
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed, ± urban places, gardens
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Great Central Valley, Sierra Nevada Foothills
Distribution outside California: to e US, S.America, Australia; perhaps native to Mexico
Synonyms: var. digitata (A. Gray) Hochr

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