Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

AEGILOPS

GOATGRASS

Mary E. Barkworth

Annual
Stem generally erect to abruptly bent at base, generally glabrous
Leaf: sheath appendaged; ligule membranous; blade flat, spreading
Inflorescence spike-like, generally cylindric, ± open to dense; spikelets 2-ranked, 1 per node, lower generally vestigial
Spikelet: glumes, lemmas toothed, generally awned; glumes thick, hard, 3+ -veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma firm, flat or rounded, veins parallel, not converging; anthers 1.5–4 mm
Species in genus: 27 species: Medit, sw&c Asia
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for wheat)
Reference: [Kimber & Feldman 1987 Univ of Missouri Spec Rep 353]
Sometimes included in Triticum , wheat.

Introduced

A. cylindrica Host

JOINTED GOATGRASS


Stem 14–50 cm
Inflorescence 2–12 cm; axis breaking apart in fruit; spikelets partly sunken in axis
Spikelet: glumes of lower fertile spikelets acute, tapered, or short-awned, glumes of terminal spikelet awned; florets 2–5; lemma of lower spikelets abruptly pointed or with awn 1–5 mm; lemma of terminal spikelets with awn 4–5 cm
Chromosomes: 2n=56
Ecology: Disturbed, dry sites, cultivated fields
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: Cascade Range, Sacramento Valley, Southwestern California, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Great Plains, Mexico; native to Mediterranean Europe, w Asia
Weedy.

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