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ROSACEAE

ROSE FAMILY

Annual to tree
Leaves simple to pinnately to palmately compound, generally alternate; stipules free to fused, persistent to deciduous
Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers solitary
Flower generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium free or fused to ovary, saucer- to funnel-shaped, often with bractlets alternate with sepals; sepals generally 5; petals generally 5, free; stamens (0)5–many, pistils (0)1–many, simple or compound; ovary superior to inferior, styles 1–5
Fruit: achene, follicle, drupe, pome, or blackberry- to raspberry-like
Seeds generally 1–5
Genera in family: 110 genera, ± 3000 species: worldwide, especially temp. Many cultivated for ornamental and fruit, especially Cotoneaster , Fragaria , Malus , Prunus , Pyracantha, Rosa , and Rubus
Reference: [Robertson 1974 J Arnold Arbor 55:303–332,344–401,611–662]
Family description, key to genera by Barbara Ertter and Dieter H. Wilken.

ACAENA

Barbara Ertter

Perennial, nonglandular
Leaves generally ± basal, odd-1-pinnate; leaflets ± evenly toothed to lobed
Inflorescence: dense spike or head
Flower: hypanthium ± conic; bractlets 0; sepals generally 4; petals 0; stamens 2 or 4, opposite sepals; pistils 1(2), ovaries superior, continuous to style at top, stigma many-branched, exserted from hypanthium
Fruit: hypanthium ± hardened, encasing elliptic achenes; prickles generally 4–many, barbed
Species in genus: 50–150 species: especially s hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: thorn, from fruit)
Reference: [Yeo 1973 Bot Soc British Isles Conf Rep 13:193–221]

Introduced

A. novae-zelandiae Kirk

BIDDY-BIDDY


Stem: flower-stem 10–20 cm
Leaf 2–6 cm in CA; stipules leaflet-like; leaflets 3–5 per side, 5–15 mm, elliptic-oblanceolate, evenly toothed < 1/4 to midvein
Inflorescence: head ± 10 mm diam (30–35 mm in fruit), spheric
Flower: sepals ± 1.5 mm, elliptic-ovate; stamens 2, pale
Fruit: hypanthium body 2.5–4 mm, obconic; prickles 4, on fruit top, 10–15 mm
Ecology: Generally ± disturbed areas
Elevation: < 200 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Central Coast, n South Coast
Distribution outside California: native to New Zealand
Cult. Weedy
Synonyms: A. anserinifolia (J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.) Druce misapplied
At least 2 other species cultivated, perhaps naturalized in CCo: A. pallida (Kirk) H.H. Allan (leaflets 1–3 cm, hypanthium body in fruit 5–6 mm, prickles 8–15 mm); Australian sp. undescribed (leaflets 1–3 cm, hypanthium body in fruit 4–6 mm, prickles 6–10 mm).

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