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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

PINACEAE

PINE FAMILY

James R. Griffin

Tree or shrub, monoecious, evergreen
Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent
Leaves simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; bases decurrent, sometimes woody, persistent several years
Pollen cone generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous
Seed cone generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract
Seeds 2, on upper side of scale base
Genera in family: 10 genera, 193 species: mostly n hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > half of world's timber
Reference: [Price 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:247–305]

ABIES

FIR


Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, round, flush with surface; bud generally ± spheric, generally < 1 cm, ± resinous
Leaves 2–9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to become 2-ranked, often curved upward on upper twigs, generally ± flat; upper surface with 2 longitudinal, whitish bands, midrib sometimes depressed; lower surface with or without whitish bands, midrib sometimes ridge-like
Seed cone erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st season; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, free from scale; axis persistent on stem
Seed with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm
Chromosomes: 2n=24 for all reports
Species in genus: 39 species: n hemisphere
Etymology: (Latin: silver fir)
Reference: [Vasek 1985 Madroño 32:65–77]

Native

A. magnifica A. Murray bis

CALIFORNIA RED FIR


Stem: trunk < 57 m, < 2.5 m wide; mature crown ± cylindric, top rounded; young bark gray, with resin blisters, mature bark deeply furrowed, with dark reddish ridges; twig hairy 1st season; bud ± resinous
Leaves < 3.5 cm, ± 3–4-angled; upper surface with 2 whitish bands; tip notched or blunt
Seed cone 12–23 cm; bract included or ± exserted
Ecology: Mixed-conifer to subalpine forests
Elevation: 1200–2800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: s Oregon (Cascade Mtns), west-central Nevada

Native

var. magnifica

Cotyledons 6–13
Seed cone: bract included
Ecology: Mixed-conifer to subalpine forests
Elevation: 1200–2600 m.
Bioregional distribution: Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada, East of Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: west-central Nevada
Horticultural information: DRN: 1, 4, 5, 15 &IRR: 2, 3, 6, 16 &SHD: 7, 14.

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