This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Perennial from long rhizomes, colonial, glabrous, generally aquatic (submersed to emergent), monoecious
Stem erect and stiff or submersed and floating above, cylindric, solid
Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, ± 2-ranked, spongy or stiff; sheath open; blade linear, flat, keeled, or triangular in X -section, spongy
Inflorescence spike-like (cylindric, dense) or head-like (spheric), terminal or axillary; staminate above pistillate, generally on same axis; flowers subtended by 1, minute bract
Staminate flower: perianth parts 0 or 16 and scale-like; stamens 18
Pistillate flower: perianth parts 0 or 16 and flattened; ovary 1, chambers 12(3), ovules 12(3)
Fruit: achene; wall thin, splitting in water
Genera in family: 2 genera, ± 25 species: worldwide. Sparganium formerly treated in Sparganiaceae. Family description and key to genera by R.F. Thorne.
Perennial from tough rhizomes, emergent or terrestrial, colonial, glabrous, monoecious
Stems erect, simple, hard
Leaf: sheath open; blade linear, C-shaped in X -section below, flat above
Inflorescence spike-like, terminal, cylindric; staminate flowers above, pistillate flowers below; flowers 1000+, staminate mixed with many papery scales; pistillate pedicels clustered on short, peg-like stalk
Staminate flower: perianth 0; stamens 27 on slender stalk; filaments slender, generally deciduous in fruit
Pistillate flowers fertile and sterile; perianth 0; pedicel slender, long-hairy; ovary 1-chambered, ovule 1, style long, thread-like, stigma 1; sterile ovary truncate to rounded
Fruit minute, fusiform, falling with pedicel and hairs; wall thin, splitting in water
Species in genus: ± 813 species: worldwide. Rhizomes, pollen of some species used for food; leaves used for caning
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Smith 1987 Arch Hydrobiol Beih 27:129138]
All North America species hybridize.
Plant 1540 dm
Leaf: sheath tapered to blade, lobes 0 to membranous, ear-like; blade 618 mm wide when fresh, 515 mm wide when dry, gland-dotted on inside near base
Inflorescence ± = leaves; naked axis between staminate and pistillate flowers (0)18 cm; staminate bractlets irregularly branched, straw-colored to cinnamon-brown; pistillate stalk ± 0.5 mm, peg-like, spike < 35 cm, 1525 mm wide in fruit, bright yellow- to orange-brown, bractlet > pedicel hairs, tip acute to acuminate
Staminate flower: pollen grains single
Pistillate flower: stigma linear; sterile ovary rounded to ± truncate, generally < pedicel hairs, pale brownish, hair tips straw-colored to orange-brown
Elevation: < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Great Central Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert
Distribution outside California: warm temperate, tropical worldwide
Flowering time: JunJul
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|