Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
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TYPHACEAE

CATTAIL FAMILY

Perennial from long rhizomes, colonial, glabrous, generally aquatic (submersed to emergent), monoecious
Stem erect and stiff or submersed and floating above, cylindric, solid
Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, ± 2-ranked, spongy or stiff; sheath open; blade linear, flat, keeled, or triangular in X -section, spongy
Inflorescence spike-like (cylindric, dense) or head-like (spheric), terminal or axillary; staminate above pistillate, generally on same axis; flowers subtended by 1, minute bract
Staminate flower: perianth parts 0 or 1–6 and scale-like; stamens 1–8
Pistillate flower: perianth parts 0 or 1–6 and flattened; ovary 1, chambers 1–2(3), ovules 1–2(3)
Fruit: achene; wall thin, splitting in water
Genera in family: 2 genera, ± 25 species: worldwide. Sparganium formerly treated in Sparganiaceae. Family description and key to genera by R.F. Thorne.

TYPHA

CATTAIL

S. Galen Smith

Perennial from tough rhizomes, emergent or terrestrial, colonial, glabrous, monoecious
Stems erect, simple, hard
Leaf: sheath open; blade linear, C-shaped in X -section below, flat above
Inflorescence spike-like, terminal, cylindric; staminate flowers above, pistillate flowers below; flowers 1000+, staminate mixed with many papery scales; pistillate pedicels clustered on short, peg-like stalk
Staminate flower: perianth 0; stamens 2–7 on slender stalk; filaments slender, generally deciduous in fruit
Pistillate flowers fertile and sterile; perianth 0; pedicel slender, long-hairy; ovary 1-chambered, ovule 1, style long, thread-like, stigma 1; sterile ovary truncate to rounded
Fruit minute, fusiform, falling with pedicel and hairs; wall thin, splitting in water
Species in genus: ± 8–13 species: worldwide. Rhizomes, pollen of some species used for food; leaves used for caning
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Smith 1987 Arch Hydrobiol Beih 27:129–138]
All North America species hybridize.

Native

T. angustifolia L.

NARROW-LEAVED CATTAIL

Plant 15–30 dm
Leaf: sheath top lobed, lobes ear-like, membranous, veiny, generally 0 with age; blade 4–12 mm wide when fresh, 3–8 mm wide when dry, glands 0
Inflorescence generally < leaves; naked axis between staminate and pistillate flowers generally 1–8 cm; staminate bractlets generally 2-lobed, some irregularly branched, brownish; pistillate stalk ± 0.5 mm, peg-like, spike (3.5)6–20 cm, 15–20 mm wide in fruit, brown, bractlet = pedicel hairs, tip rounded, dark brown
Staminate flower: pollen grains single
Pistillate flower: stigma linear; sterile ovary truncate, ± = pedicel hairs, green when fresh, pale brown when dry, hair tips brownish
Chromosomes: n=15
Ecology: Marshes
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: n High Sierra Nevada (Lake Tahoe), Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: to e N.America, Eurasia
Possibly naturalized in CA. Hybrids with T. latifolia have been called T. X glauca Godr..

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