|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Perennial from long rhizomes, colonial, glabrous, generally aquatic (submersed to emergent), monoecious
Stem erect and stiff or submersed and floating above, cylindric, solid
Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, ± 2-ranked, spongy or stiff; sheath open; blade linear, flat, keeled, or triangular in X -section, spongy
Inflorescence spike-like (cylindric, dense) or head-like (spheric), terminal or axillary; staminate above pistillate, generally on same axis; flowers subtended by 1, minute bract
Staminate flower: perianth parts 0 or 16 and scale-like; stamens 18
Pistillate flower: perianth parts 0 or 16 and flattened; ovary 1, chambers 12(3), ovules 12(3)
Fruit: achene; wall thin, splitting in water
Genera in family: 2 genera, ± 25 species: worldwide. Sparganium formerly treated in Sparganiaceae. Family description and key to genera by R.F. Thorne.
Perennial from tough rhizomes, emergent or terrestrial, colonial, glabrous, monoecious
Stems erect, simple, hard
Leaf: sheath open; blade linear, C-shaped in X -section below, flat above
Inflorescence spike-like, terminal, cylindric; staminate flowers above, pistillate flowers below; flowers 1000+, staminate mixed with many papery scales; pistillate pedicels clustered on short, peg-like stalk
Staminate flower: perianth 0; stamens 27 on slender stalk; filaments slender, generally deciduous in fruit
Pistillate flowers fertile and sterile; perianth 0; pedicel slender, long-hairy; ovary 1-chambered, ovule 1, style long, thread-like, stigma 1; sterile ovary truncate to rounded
Fruit minute, fusiform, falling with pedicel and hairs; wall thin, splitting in water
Species in genus: ± 813 species: worldwide. Rhizomes, pollen of some species used for food; leaves used for caning
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Smith 1987 Arch Hydrobiol Beih 27:129138]
All North America species hybridize.
Plant 1530 dm
Leaf: sheath top lobed, lobes ear-like, membranous, veiny, generally 0 with age; blade 412 mm wide when fresh, 38 mm wide when dry, glands 0
Inflorescence generally < leaves; naked axis between staminate and pistillate flowers generally 18 cm; staminate bractlets generally 2-lobed, some irregularly branched, brownish; pistillate stalk ± 0.5 mm, peg-like, spike (3.5)620 cm, 1520 mm wide in fruit, brown, bractlet = pedicel hairs, tip rounded, dark brown
Staminate flower: pollen grains single
Pistillate flower: stigma linear; sterile ovary truncate, ± = pedicel hairs, green when fresh, pale brown when dry, hair tips brownish
Elevation: < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: n High Sierra Nevada (Lake Tahoe), Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: to e N.America, Eurasia
Possibly naturalized in CA.
Hybrids with T. latifolia have been called T. X glauca Godr..