|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual, perennial herb, aquatic, (generally fresh to alkaline water), glabrous, from rhizomes or small, bulb-like, winter buds
Stems erect, simple to branched, cylindric or flattened
Leaves simple, cauline, alternate or in subopposite pairs; submersed thread-like to round, sessile or petioled; floating, if present, elliptic to ovate, petioled, leathery; sheath open, continuous with petiole or ± free from leaf base, generally with stipules, stipules sometimes fused, ligule-like
Inflorescence: spike or head-like, axillary or terminal, generally emergent, peduncled; bracts 0
Flower bisexual; perianth parts 0 or 4, clawed; stamens 2 or 4, if 4, each fused to base of perianth part, sessile or filament short, wide, anthers open to outside; pistils 4, ovary 1-chambered, ovule 1, style short or stigmas sessile
Genera in family: 3 genera, ± 95 species: worldwide
Recent taxonomic note: Recently treated to include Zannichelliaceae [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531553].
Annual, perennial herb, from rhizomes or small, bulb-like, winter buds
Stem simple or branched, cylindric or flattened, rooting at lower nodes
Leaves simple, cauline, generally alternate, generally flat, generally green, margin generally entire; submersed leaves sessile or petioled, linear to round, tip rounded to acuminate, veins 135; floating leaves, if any, elliptic to ovate, generally petioled, leathery; stipules free or fused, sheath-like below leaf junction, free or fused (ligule-like) above leaf junction
Inflorescence: cylindric spike or head-like, axillary or terminal, floating to emergent
Flower: inconspicuous; perianth parts 4, clawed, greenish; stamens 4, attached to base of perianth, anthers generally sessile; ovule attached at chamber base, style short or stigma sessile
Fruit generally obovate, sessile, floating
Species in genus: ± 90 species: mostly temp n hemisphere
Etymology: (Greek: river neighbor, from aquatic habitat)
Reference: [Haynes 1974 Rhodora 76:564649; 1985 Sida 11:173188; Wieglet 1988 Feddes Repert 99:249266]
Perennial from rhizome
Stem generally simple, < 160 cm, subcylindric
Leaves: submersed leaves 1030 cm, < 2 mm wide, linear, blades linear or reduced to petiole; floating leaves 611 cm, < 60 mm wide, oblong to widely elliptic, base slightly lobed, jointed to petiole, tip rounded; stipules 68 cm, free, persistent
Inflorescence: spike, < 5 cm
Fruit 3.55 mm; back rounded, smooth or faintly keeled; sides concave
Ecology: Shallow, fresh or brackish water, lakes, ponds, bogs, marshes, lagoons, streams
Elevation: < 2700 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e N.America, Baja California, Eurasia
Hybridizes with P. gramineus, P. nodosus.
Horticultural information: water, SUN: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24.