|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Stems < 8 dm, solitary or loosely clumped, ascending to erect, unbranched
Leaves generally cauline; sheath < internode; ligule < 1 mm, membranous, minutely fringed; blade < 15 cm, 0.52.5 mm wide, flat or rolled when dry; basal lobes 0
Inflorescence panicle-like, narrow, dense or open
Spikelet: glumes unequal, lanceolate, lower sometimes minute, upper 3-veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; florets 210, generally cleistogamous; lemma back round, 35-veined, awn < 22 mm, straight; palea ± = lemma, tip forked; stamen generally 1, < 1 mm; ovary tip glabrous
Fruit 36.5 mm, ± linear, ± sticking to palea
Etymology: (J.S. Vulpius, pharmacist-botanist of Baden, Germany)
Reference: [Lonard & Gould 1974 Madroño 22:217230]
Horticultural information: STBL.
Stem 1.57.5 dm, glabrous
Inflorescence 224 cm, ± open, at least lower branches spreading or reflexed; branches 1 per node, < 7 cm; spikelet stalk angular
Spikelet 5.510 mm; lower glume 25.5 mm, upper 3.57.5 mm; florets 24; lemma 49.5 mm, awn 3.512 mm
Fruit ± 46 mm
Ecology: Disturbed, open, generally sandy soils
Elevation: generally < 1500 m.
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Idaho, Baja California
Spikelet: glumes hairy; lemma glabrous
Ecology: Uncommon. Coastal-sage scrub, yellow-pine forests, grassy plains, dry hillsides
Elevation: generally < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California Floristic Province
Distribution outside California: to Washington
Synonyms: Festuca c. Piper, F. tracyi C.L. Hitchc