Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

TRISETUM

Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb
Stems ascending to erect
Leaves basal and cauline; ligule membranous, obtuse to truncate, toothed, tip ciliate or not; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence panicle- to spike-like, open to compact, cylindric to narrowly conic
Spikelet: glumes ± unequal, generally = or < lower floret, keeled, acute, lower 1-veined, upper 3-veined; axis stiff- to soft-hairy, generally prolonged behind upper floret, bristly or with vestigial floret; florets 2–3, bisexual, breaking above glumes and between florets (sometimes below glumes); callus short-hairy; lemmas ± keeled, tip 2-bristled or not, awned on back near tip or not, awn straight to bent; palea = or < lemma
Species in genus: 50–70 species: temp, tropical mtns
Etymology: (Latin: three bristle)
Some species intergrade; needs critical study in w North America.

Native

T. cernuum Trin.

Perennial, sometimes from short rhizomes
Stems 4–10 dm, solitary to loosely clumped
Leaves basal and cauline; ligule 1–3 mm; cauline blade generally (4)6–12 mm wide
Inflorescence panicle-like, 10–30 cm, open, triangular in outline; lower branches ± wiry, generally spreading; axis mostly exposed, glabrous
Spikelets generally on distal half of lower branches; lower glume < 2 mm, linear-lanceolate to ovate, upper 3–4 mm, narrowly elliptic, tip 1–2-toothed; axis conspicuous, segments between florets 1–2 mm; upper floret ± exserted; lemmas 4–6 mm, awn 7–12 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=42
Ecology: Moist, shaded sites, redwood, coniferous forest
Elevation: < 1000 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, Montana
Horticultural information: IRR: 4, 5, 6, 15, 16, 17 &SHD: 1, 14, 22, 23, 24.

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