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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


Jerrold I Davis

Perennial from rhizomes
Stems decumbent to erect, sometimes rooting at nodes
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath open ± to base; ligule thinly membranous, acute to obtuse, sometimes toothed
Inflorescence panicle-like; lower branches reflexed to erect
Spikelet bisexual; glumes < lowest floret, lower glume generally 1-veined, upper generally 3-veined; florets 3–8; lemma firm, back rounded, scabrous, margin near tip scabrous-serrate at 10X , prominently (5)7–9-veined, veins not converging at tip; awn 0; palea ± = lemma
Species in genus: ± 5 species: temp North America, e Asia
Etymology: (J. Torrey, Amer botanist, 1796–1873)
Reference: [Davis 1991 Phytologia 70:361–365]
Spp. generally occurring in freshwater wet habitats.


T. erecta (Hitchc.) G.L. Church

Stem 2–6 dm
Leaf: cauline leaf blade 3.5–7 mm wide
Inflorescence 5.5–11 cm, < 1 cm wide, linear to narrowly elliptic in outline, 5–15 X width; lower branches erect to ascending
Spikelet: florets 4–6; lowest lemma 2–3 mm; anthers of lowest floret 0.6–0.8 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology: Stream, lake margins, coniferous forest
Elevation: 2000–3500 m.
Bioregional distribution: High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada
Distribution outside California: to Oregon, Nevada
Synonyms: Puccinellia e. (Hitchc.) Munz
Horticultural information: STBL.

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