Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

TAENIATHERUM

Mary E. Barkworth

Annual
Stems ascending to erect
Leaf: sheath short-appendaged; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled
Inflorescence spike-like, dense; spikelets 2-ranked, 2 per node
Spikelet: glumes awl- to awn-like, firm; axis breaking above glumes; florets 2, lower fertile, upper vestigial on prolonged axis; lemma lanceolate, generally scabrous, awn > lemma body, flat, straight to curving outward; anthers < 2 mm
Species in genus: ± 3 species: temp Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: ribboned awn)

Introduced

T. caput-medusae (L.) Nevski


Stem 2–6 dm, decumbent to ascending, slender
Leaf: sheath glabrous, appendages < 3 mm; ligule < 0.5 mm, truncate; blade 1–3 mm wide, ± inrolled, glabrous to puberulent, long-ciliate near collar
Inflorescence 1.5–5 cm except awns
Spikelet: glumes 1.5–4 cm, fused at base, awn-like, stiff, generally glabrous; lemma body 5–8 mm, narrowly lanceolate, awn 3–7 cm, flat, straight to curving outward
Chromosomes: 2n=14
Ecology:
Elevation:
Bioregional distribution: North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, n South Coast, expected elsewhere
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Rocky Mtns; native to Europe
Synonyms: Elymus c.-m. L
Weedy.

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