This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
previous taxon |
Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb
Stems generally ascending to erect, 220 dm, generally tufted, ± solid in X -section
Leaves generally basal; cauline few, ascending or curving away; distal sheath margin and collar glabrous or hairy; ligule < 1 mm, hairy or membranous, fringed; blade flat to inrolled, generally glabrous or scabrous, sometimes short-soft-hairy
Inflorescence terminal, also sometimes axillary, panicle- or spike-like, generally partly enclosed by sheath; branches spreading or appressed
Spikelet < 6 mm, generally pale to gray-green or purplish; glumes generally unequal, upper < or > lemma, membranous to translucent, 1-veined; floret bisexual, generally breaking above glumes; lemma texture generally like glumes, 1(3)-veined; palea < or > lemma
Fruit 13 mm, generally falling from floret, generally gelatinous when wet
Species in genus: ± 150 species: Am, Eurasia, Africa
Etymology: (Greek: to throw seed, from deciduous seeds)
Stems 1several, tufted, 36(10) dm
Leaf: sheath, collar margins glabrous to scabrous; sheath bases intact or becoming frayed, brown, dull; ligule < 0.5 mm, hairy; blade 830 cm, 35 mm wide
Inflorescence generally terminal, 15(8) dm; base 0.51 cm wide; branches generally < 3 cm
Spikelet 1.52.5 mm, ± green or brownish; glume, lemma backs rounded; glumes ± unequal, lower 0.51 mm, ± awl-like, upper < 0.5 X lemma, ovate, obtuse to acute; lemma 22.5 mm, ovate, acute; palea < or = lemma; anthers 0.51 mm
Fruit ± 1 mm
Ecology: Open, disturbed areas, roadsides, lawns
Elevation: < 1200 m.
Bioregional distribution: s Central Coast, South Coast, s Peninsular Ranges
Distribution outside California: to se US, Caribbean, Mexico; native to tropical America
Synonyms: S. poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc. misapplied
Spikelets, upper leaves generally covered by black fungus, hence common name.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|