This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (Greek: hard grass, from thick glumes)
Stems generally clumped, prostrate to erect on same plant, 28 cm
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath generally open; ligule < 2 mm, membranous, obtuse, tip toothed; blade 23 cm, flat
Inflorescence spike-like, 12 cm
Spikelets 610 mm, subsessile, crowded, 2-ranked on 1 side of axis, breaking below glumes, falling as 1 unit (sometimes weakly breaking between florets); glumes and lemmas firmly membranous at base, distal margin translucent; glumes << lower lemmas, unequal, rounded, lower ± 2 mm, generally 3-veined, upper 46 mm, 79-veined; florets 35, lower 23 bisexual, upper staminate or sterile; lemmas 37 mm, strongly keeled, obtuse, 5-veined, awn 0; palea < lemma
Ecology: Disturbed sites
Elevation: 700800 m.
Bioregional distribution: w High Cascade Range (Shasta Valley)
Distribution outside California: to Washington, Colorado, Texas; native to s Europe
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|