|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb, some ± dioecious
Stem 0.312 dm
Leaf: sheath open to closed (best observed on upper stem leaf); ligule thin, flexible; blade grooved above on both sides of midvein, flat, folded, or inrolled, generally smooth or scabrous on veins, generally prow-tipped
Inflorescence panicle-like; branches appressed to drooping
Spikelet generally compressed, breaking between florets; glumes 2, similar, generally < lowest lemma, awnless; florets generally 26; callus indistinct, often with obvious tuft of long cobwebby hairs; lemma generally keeled to base, of same texture as glumes, awnless, veins generally 5, ± converging near tip; palea well developed, keels generally scabrous; fertile anthers 0.24.5 mm; ovary glabrous
Species in genus: ± 500 species: temp and cool regions
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name)
Reference: [Soreng 1991 Syst Bot 16:507528]
CA is center of diversity in North America. Spikelet features best observed on lowest florets of spikelet.
Annual, biennial, cespitose or with stolons, 0.22 dm
Leaf: sheath open ± 2/3 length; ligule 15 mm, rounded to obtuse; blade generally 13 mm wide, soft, generally flat, bright or yellowish green
Inflorescence 110 cm, triangular, 1.21.6 X longer than wide, open in fruit; branches spreading, smooth, with spikelets only in top 1/2
Spikelet: axis ± hidden; callus glabrous; lemma 2.54 mm, smooth, veins soft-hairy or glabrous; palea keels hairy
Flower: bisexual or upper 12 pistillate; anther 0.61 mm
Ecology: Abundant. Disturbed moist ground, lawns, etc.
Elevation: generally < 2000 m.
Bioregional distribution: California (especially near coast)
Distribution outside California: ± worldwide, native to Europe
Flowering time: Fl winter and spring, continuously when moisture permits.