Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

PLEUROPOGON

SEMAPHORE GRASS

Mary E. Barkworth

Annual, perennial herb
Stem generally erect
Leaves generally cauline
Leaf: sheath margins fused > 1/2 length; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded, drooping
Inflorescence raceme-like
Spikelet 1.5–8 cm; glumes << lowest floret, translucent, lower 1-veined, upper 1–3-veined; florets 5–20; lemma 7–9-veined, veins prominent, not converging, extending to tip, awn 1–5 mm; palea ± = lemma, veins with appendages
Species in genus: 5 species: temp w North America., 1 sp. in e Asia
Etymology: (Greek: side beard, from awn at palea base in some species)

Native

P. refractus (A. Gray) Benth.

NODDING SEMAPHORE GRASS

Perennial
Stem erect, 8.5–15 dm
Leaf: ligule 2–7 mm; blade 5–14 mm wide
Spikelet 2.5–8 cm, reflexed at maturity; lower glume 3–6 mm, upper 4–8.5 mm; lemma 8–10 mm, awn 5–20 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=36
Ecology: UNCOMMON. Wet meadows, shady banks
Elevation: < 1600 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
See the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
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