This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb, cespitose or from rhizomes
Stem generally erect, 220 dm
Leaf: sheath open; ligule membranous, truncate; blade generally 25 dm, 12 cm wide, flat
Inflorescence panicle-like, generally cylindric to ovoid, dense; branches ascending to appressed, obscure
Spikelet generally fertile, sometimes also sterile in P. paradoxa, compressed; glumes equal, > florets, sometimes with wing-like keel, 35-veined; axis generally breaking above glumes, generally falling as 1 unit; florets 23, lower 12 vestigial or 0, upper 1 fertile; upper floret lemma generally ovoid, glabrous or appressed-hairy, shiny, faintly 5-veined, awn 0; palea < lemma, translucent
Fruit ± fusiform
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for grass with shiny spikelets)
Stem 210 dm
Inflorescence 39 cm, 12 cm wide, oblong; base tapered; tip ± truncate to acuminate; spikelets in clusters, cluster falling as 1 unit; fertile spikelet generally surrounded by 56 sterile, short-stalked spikelets; sterile spikelet vestigial or = fertile
Fertile spikelet: glumes 5.58 mm, ± 1 mm wide, generally glabrous, wing lobed to toothed, tip acute to acuminate; lower florets vestigial, knob-like; upper lemma 2.53.5 mm, 11.5 mm wide, narrowly ovoid, generally glabrous or sparsely hairy near tip
Fruit ± 2.5 mm, ± 1 mm wide
Ecology: Disturbed areas
Elevation: < 250 m.
Bioregional distribution: Great Central Valley, Southwestern California, Sonoran Desert
Distribution outside California: native to Mediterranean Europe
Flowering time: MayAug
Small plants generally have many, vestigial sterile spikelets.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|