|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
For up-to-date information about California vascular plants, visit the Jepson eFlora.
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb, cespitose or from rhizomes
Stem generally erect, 220 dm
Leaf: sheath open; ligule membranous, truncate; blade generally 25 dm, 12 cm wide, flat
Inflorescence panicle-like, generally cylindric to ovoid, dense; branches ascending to appressed, obscure
Spikelet generally fertile, sometimes also sterile in P. paradoxa, compressed; glumes equal, > florets, sometimes with wing-like keel, 35-veined; axis generally breaking above glumes, generally falling as 1 unit; florets 23, lower 12 vestigial or 0, upper 1 fertile; upper floret lemma generally ovoid, glabrous or appressed-hairy, shiny, faintly 5-veined, awn 0; palea < lemma, translucent
Fruit ± fusiform
Species in genus: ± 15 species: temp North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (Greek: ancient name for grass with shiny spikelets)
Stem 513 dm
Inflorescence 412 cm, 0.71.5 cm wide, ± cylindric, interrupted at base; lower branches < 2 cm
Spikelet: glumes 57 mm, ± 1 mm wide, wing 0, veins scabrous, tip acuminate; lower florets 2, 11.5 mm wide, awl-like, appressed-hairy; upper lemma 45 mm, 11.5 mm wide, lanceolate-ovoid, ± swollen, hairs spreading except tip glabrous
Fruit ± 2 mm, ± 1 mm wide
Ecology: Generally moist areas, scrub, woodland
Elevation: < 750 m.
Bioregional distribution: Outer North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, South Coast.
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|