This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb
Stems generally erect; internode solid to hollow inside
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath glabrous or hairy; ligule short-hairy or membranous, ciliate, hairs generally > membrane
Inflorescence panicle-like, generally open; 1° branches spreading to ascending; 2° branches spreading to appressed; spikelets many, 12 per node, generally stalked, on one side of axis or not, stalk tip expanded, one side concave
Spikelet falling as 1 unit, ± compressed, generally green to purplish; glumes generally unequal, lower generally < upper, free, clasping, upper glume ± = spikelet, membranous, ± thin; florets 2, lower sterile or staminate, lemma texture like glumes, upper floret fertile, lemma leathery to hard, firm, generally shiny, smooth to rough, margin inrolled, tip blunt, palea enclosed by lemma margin
Species in genus: ± 450 species: tropical to warm temp, worldwide
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for millet)
Reference: [Spellenberg 1975 Brittonia 27:8795]
Some species cultivated for food.
Stem 36 dm
Leaf: sheaths 28 cm, glabrous or short-hairy; ligule 14 mm, hairy; blade 314 cm, 315 mm, upper surface glabrous or short-hairy
Inflorescence 58 cm; 1° branches 24.5 cm, axis glabrous; spikelets 12 per node, stalk 25 mm
Spikelet ± 2.73.5 mm, ± 12 mm wide, elliptic, green; lower glume ± 11.5 mm, 1-veined, tip acuminate; lower floret sterile, lemma 911-veined, acute to rounded, palea ± = lemma to vestigial; upper floret slightly < lower floret
Ecology: Meadows, open sites in forest
Elevation: < 1400 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, n Cascade Range
Distribution outside California: to Canada, e US
Typical var. in e&s US
Synonyms: P. scribnerianum Nash
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|