|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL (1993)||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
AND IS MAINTAINED FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb, sometimes mat-like, often rhizomed
Stem decumbent to erect, ± clumped
Leaves basal and cauline; sheath open; ligule membranous, entire to irregularly toothed, sometimes with 1 large tooth on each side; blade flat to rolled
Inflorescence panicle-like, narrow to open; branches spreading to appressed
Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally 1-veined, short-pointed to awned, upper glume sometimes 3-veined; florets 1, sometimes 2, breaking above glumes; lemma short-pointed to awned, glabrous to hairy, 3-veined; palea < to = lemma
Fruit ± fusiform, reddish brown, generally falling with lemma and palea
Species in genus: ± 160 species: temp Am, s Asia
Etymology: (H.L.E. Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania botanist, 17531815)
Reference: [Reeder 1981 in Gould and Moran 1981 San Diego Soc Nat Hist Memoir 12:6778]
Horticultural information: STBL.
Perennial; rhizomes ± short, knot-likeSee the CNPS Inventory for information about endangerment and rarity.
Stem erect, 35 dm, wiry, rooting at lower nodes; lower nodes knot-like
Leaf: ligule 12.5 mm, decurrent to sheath, with 1 large tooth on each side; blade 58 cm, 0.51.5 mm wide, flat to ± folded
Inflorescence 512 cm, < 3 cm wide, narrow; branches ascending to appressed, loosely flowered
Spikelet: glumes 1.43.2 mm, acuminate to ± short-awned, awn < 1 mm; lemma 45 mm, hairs at base short-appressed, awn 520 mm; palea glabrous to ± scabrous; anther 1.82 mm, purple
Ecology: Rocky slopes, ledges, canyons
Elevation: 1755 m.
Bioregional distribution: e Desert Mountains (New York Mtns)
Distribution outside California: to s Colorado, w Texas, Mexico
Horticultural information: In cultivation.