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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


Mary E. Barkworth

Perennial, generally from rhizomes
Leaf: ligule membranous; blade flat or rolled, strongly ribbed above, glabrous or hairy
Inflorescence generally spike-like (panicle-like in L. condensatus), dense, generally > upper cauline leaves; some nodes with 2+, generally sessile spikelets
Spikelet: glumes < spikelet, lanceolate, membranous, flexible or narrowly lanceolate to awl-like, stiff; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; florets 2–7; lemma acute to short-awned; palea < lemma; anthers 2.5–7 mm
Species in genus: 31 species: North America., Eurasia
Etymology: (Anagram of Elymus)
Reference: [Barkworth & Atkins 1984 Amer J Bot 71:609–625]
Some species important in revegetation, often on saline soils. Sometimes treated in Elymus.


L. X vancouverensis (Vasey) Pilg.

Plant from rhizomes
Stem 6.5–13 dm, sparsely to densely hairy below inflorescence
Leaf: blade < 9 mm wide
Inflorescence 7–27 cm; spikelets 1–2 per node, sometimes short-stalked
Spikelet: glumes 8–14 mm, base flat, tapered to 1–4 mm awn; lemma base glabrous, scabrous to hairy near tip
Chromosomes: 2n=42
Ecology: Sandy beaches
Elevation: < 100 m.
Bioregional distribution: North Coast, n Central Coast
Distribution outside California: to British Columbia
Synonyms: Elymus v. Vasey
Hybrid between L. mollis and L. triticoides.
Horticultural information: STBL.

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