This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb
Leaves basal to cauline; ligule membranous, glabrous to minutely ciliate, toothed at obtuse to truncate tip; blade narrow, flat to inrolled
Inflorescence panicle-like, generally compact, narrow
Spikelet laterally compressed; glumes unequal, upper > and wider than lower, keeled, acute, lower 1-veined, upper faintly 35-veined; axis prolonged beyond fertile floret, bristly (sometimes with vestigial floret at tip); florets 25, bisexual, breaking above glumes and between florets; lower lemmas generally > glumes, awned or not, 5-veined; palea ± < lemma, tip minutely 2-forked
Species in genus: ± 30 species: temp North America, Eurasia
Etymology: (G.L. Koeler, Germany, born 1765)
Stems 16(15), 540 cm, glabrous
Leaves basal and cauline; basal loosely tufted, with soft to coarse hairs on back and margins; ligule < 1 mm; blade 15 cm, 12 mm wide, smooth to ridged
Inflorescence 830 cm, 410 mm wide, cylindric, axis and branches glabrous
Spikelet 34 mm, green to tan; glumes and lower lemmas papillate to coarse-hairy on back; lower glume ± 2 mm, upper ± 3 mm; lemmas 23 mm, lemmas awned at tip, lower lemma awn 12 mm
Ecology: Open, disturbed sites
Elevation: < 350 m.
Bioregional distribution: Inner North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area, Great Central Valley, s Outer South Coast Ranges, Inner South Coast Ranges
Distribution outside California: to Washington, s US; native to Mediterranean
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|