Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

HORDEUM

BARLEY

Mary E. Barkworth

Annual, perennial herb, sometimes from short rhizomes
Stem decumbent to erect, generally abruptly bent at base
Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy, short-appendaged or not; blade flat or ± rolled
Inflorescence spike-like, dense; axis breaking apart at nodes in fruit; spikelets 2-ranked, strongly overlapping, 3 per node, spikelets of 2 kinds
Central spikelet bisexual, generally sessile; with 1 stalked or sessile floret; glumes awn-like, generally > floret; lemma awned
Lateral spikelets 2, sterile or staminate, generally short-stalked; with 1 sessile floret; glumes awn-like, > floret, lemma generally awned
Species in genus: 32 species: temp worldwide except Australia
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for Barley)
Reference: [Baum & Bailey 1990 Canad J Bot 68:2433–2442]

Native

H. jubatum L.

FOXTAIL BARLEY

Perennial or annual
Stems 2–6 dm, bent at base or erect, densely tufted
Leaf: sheath glabrous to hairy, appendages 0; blade < 5 mm wide, scabrous to short-hairy
Inflorescence 3–10 cm, breaking apart in fruit, whitish green to light purple
Central spikelet: glumes (10)35–80 mm, not flat at base, strongly spreading with age; floret 5.5–8 mm; lemma awn 25–90 mm
Lateral spikelets staminate or sterile; glumes 35–80 mm, not flat at base; floret 4–5 mm; lemma awn 2–7 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=28
Ecology:
Elevation:
Bioregional distribution: California
Distribution outside California: to Alaska, e US, Mexico
Flowering time: May–Jul
Synonyms: var. caespitosum (Scribner) Hitchc
Scabrous spikelet clusters can cause mechanical injury to animals.

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