This page is based on the 1993 Jepson Manual.
Please see the Jepson eFlora for up-to-date information about California vascular plants.
|Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange|
|TREATMENT FROM THE JEPSON MANUAL||
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California
Print edition is available from the University of California Press
|The second edition of The Jepson Manual (2012) is available from the University of California Press|
|See also the Jepson eFlora, which parallels the Second Edition|
Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials).
[Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.
Annual, perennial herb, cespitose
Stem erect, densely clumped
Leaves cauline; sheaths flattened, generally < internodes; ligule truncate, thinly membranous; blade flat or folded
Inflorescence ± spike-like
Spikelets on 1 side of axis, paired; spikelets of lower 14 pairs ± equal, sterile or staminate; spikelets of upper pairs strongly unequal, lower spikelet sessile, bisexual, awned, upper stalked, staminate or sterile, awn 0, pair breaking below sessile spikelet
Sessile spikelet: glumes hard, short-hairy, tightly enclosing florets; florets 2, lower vestigial, obscure, upper fertile; lemma transparent, fragile
Stalked spikelet: glumes, lemmas thinly membranous
Species in genus: 6 species: warm temp, tropical
Etymology: (Greek: different beard, from awned and awnless spikelets)
Stem 28 dm
Leaf: blade 624 cm, 48 mm wide
Inflorescence 48 cm
Sessile spikelet: glume 58 mm, dark brown, sharp-pointed, callus hairs red-brown, awn 510 cm, puberulent, red-brown
Stalked spikelet staminate
Ecology: Uncommon. Rocky slopes, washes, open areas
Elevation: < 800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Sonoran Desert, naturalized in South Coast (San Diego Co.)
Distribution outside California: Baja California, to s US, worldwide
|YOU CAN HELP US make sure that our distributional information is correct and current. If you know that a plant occurs in a wild, reproducing state in a Jepson bioregion NOT highlighted on the map, please contact us with that information. Please realize that we cannot incorporate range extensions without access to a voucher specimen, which should (ultimately) be deposited in an herbarium. You can send the pressed, dried collection (with complete locality information indicated) to us (e-mail us for details) or refer us to an accessioned herbarium specimen. Non-occurrence of a plant in an indicated area is difficult to document, but we will especially value your input on those types of possible errors (see automatic conversion of distribution data to maps).|