Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.



James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.


Thomas Worley

Species in genus: 1 sp
Etymology: (P. Hainardi, Swiss phytogeographer)
Reference: [Greuter & Rechinger 1967 Boissiera 13:22–196]
See Parapholis.


H. cylindrica (Willd.) Greuter

Stem ascending to erect, 2–5 dm, branched, glabrous
Leaf: sheath 1–6 cm; ligule 1 mm, membranous; blade generally flat, ribbed, upper surface scabrous
Inflorescence spike-like, 8–20 cm, cylindric, stiff, straight, breaking at nodes; spikelets alternate, 2-ranked, appressed, embedded in axis, falling with axis segment, lowest included in sheath
Spikelet: glume 1, generally 5–7 mm, thick, rigid, margin sometimes inrolled, 9-veined; floret 1, bisexual; lemma 4–6 mm, translucent, back facing inflorescence axis, 3-veined; palea ± = lemma, translucent; anther 2–3.5 mm
Fruit 2.5–3.5 mm
Chromosomes: 2n=26,52
Ecology: Coastal salt marshes, alkaline soils
Elevation: < 300 m.
Bioregional distribution: n Sierra Nevada Foothills (Amador Co.), deltaic Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast
Distribution outside California: Baja California; native to Europe
Synonyms: Monerma c. (Willd.) Coss. & Durieu

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