Jepson Flora Project: Jepson Interchange    

 
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Jepson Interchange (more information)
©Copyright 1993 by the Regents of the University of California

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  • Up-to-date information about California vascular plants is available from the Jepson eFlora.

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as specified

Annual to bamboo-like; roots generally fibrous
Stem generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid
Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base
Inflorescence various (of generally many spikelets)
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma
Flower generally bisexual, minute; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose
Fruit: achene-like grain
Genera in family: 650–900 genera; ± 10,000 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials)
Reference: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
See Glossary p. 26 for illustrations of general family characteristics. Generally wind-pollinated.

FESTUCA

FESCUE

Susan G. Aiken

Perennial, generally cespitose, generally ± glabrous; bisexual, dioecious in F. kingii
Stem erect
Leaves ± basal; sheath generally persisting; collar generally glabrous; ligule generally < 1 mm, membranous, truncate, minutely fringed; blade flat or rolled, basal lobes generally 0
Inflorescence panicle-like; branches dense and appressed to open and spreading
Spikelet: glumes < lowest floret, unequal, lower 1–3-veined, upper 3–5-veined; axis breaking above glumes and between florets, florets 2–10, generally bisexual; lemma base generally glabrous, 5-veined (rarely 3- or 7-veined), not converging at tip; awn generally terminal, straight, glabrous; palea ± = lemma; stamens 3
Fruit free from palea, generally beakless
Etymology: (Latin: ancient name)
Reference: [Frederiksen 1982 Nord J Bot 2:525–536]

Native

F. californica Vasey

CALIFORNIA FESCUE


Stems 4.5–12 dm, clumped; nodes visible
Leaf: sheath ± scabrous, conspicuously persisting; collar glabrous to long-hairy; ligule 0.5–1.5(4) mm; blade 10–100 cm, 1.8–3.5 mm wide, flat or rolled, scabrous
Inflorescence 10–27 cm, open; spikelets borne near branch tips
Spikelet 13–18 mm; lower glume 4.5–7 mm, upper 6–8 mm; florets 4–6; lemma 7.5–11 mm, glabrous, awn 1.5–2.5 mm; anthers 4.5–5 mm; ovary tip hairy
Chromosomes: 2n=56
Ecology: Open forest, chaparral
Elevation: < 1800 m.
Bioregional distribution: Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, San Bernardino Mountains
Distribution outside California: Oregon
Smaller plants with ± glabrous collars from SnBr have been called var. parishii (Piper) Hitchc
Horticultural information: 4, 5, 6 IRR: 17, 22, 23, 24 &part SHD: 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21; CVS; also STBL.

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